Applying HACCP Principles

Mandatory Food Safety Re-certification Training for Philadelphia Food Establishment Personnel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Developed by: Roy E. Costa, RS, MS: Valencia Comm. College

MODERN Food Safety Solutions

George DeMirjian RS, BS; President

708-A Cedar Street

Riverton NJ 08077

www.modernfoodsafety.com

888-665-3070

 

Applying HACCP Principles Study Guide:

Lesson 1: Introduction:

A. Background

B. The workshop and this study guide

C. Managing food safety and self inspection

D. The HACCP plan and the HACCP team

Lesson II: Foodborne Illness

A. Reviewing the causes of foodborne illness

a. Potentially hazardous foods

b. Infections

c. Prevention of infections

d. Intoxications

e. Prevention of intoxications

B. Food safety hazards and prevention

a. Food safety hazards

b. Controlling hazards with HACCP

Lesson III: The Seven HACCP Principals

A. Preliminary HACCP activities

B. The seven HACCP Principles

a. Principle 1: Hazard Analysis

b. Principle 2: Critical Control Point

c. Principle 3: Critical limits

d. Principle 4: Monitoring

e. Principle 5: Corrective action

f. Principle 6: Verification

g. Principle 7: Record keeping

Lesson IV: Identifying hazards and determining critical control points

A. Principle 1: Conduct a Hazard Analysis

a. Determining the risks of hazards

b. Preparing the food flow diagram

c. A typical food flow diagram

d. Hazard assessment

e. Preventive measures

B. Principle 2: Identify Critical Control Points

a. Definition of critical control point

b. Typical critical control points

c. Critical control point guidelines

d. Critical control point decision tree

e. Example of critical control point selection method

Lesson V: Critical Limits; Monitoring; Corrective Actions

A. Principle 3: Determining critical limits

a. Definition of critical limit

b. Sources of standards

c. Criteria used

d. Examples of critical limits

B. Principle 4: Establish procedures to monitor CCP

a. Definition of monitoring

b. Purposes of monitoring

c. Types of monitoring measurements

d. Procedures for monitoring

e. Thermometer usage

f. Other monitoring equipment

g. Monitoring records

h. Examples of monitoring

C. Principle 5: Take corrective action

a. Definition of corrective action

b. Importance of corrective actions

c. Examples of corrective actions

Lesson VI: Verification and Record Keeping

A. Principle 6: Verification

B. Principle 7: Record keeping

Lesson VII: The role of the regulatory agency and local requirements

Lesson VIII Overcoming barriers to HACCP implementation

A. Management commitment

B. Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures

C. Education and training

D. Facility design

Appendix A: Glossary

Appendix B: Advisory Board

Appendix C: Contact information

Appendix D: Bibliography

Appendix E: Professional Associations and Organizations

Appendix F Part I: Examples

A. Example 1: Identify potentially hazardous foods

B. Example 2: Prepare food flow diagram

C. Example 3: Identify hazards

D. Example 4: Identify preventive measures

E. Example 5: Using the decision tree

F. Example 6: Identify critical control points

G. Example 7: Establish critical limits

H. Example 8: Establish monitoring procedures

I. Example 9: Taking corrective actions

J. Example 10: Setting up a verification system

K. Example 11: Setting up a record keeping system

L. Example 12: Preparing a summary sheet

Appendix F Part II a Self-tests

Appendix F Part II b Answers to Self-tests

Appendix F Part III Fried Chicken Breast exercise to be used with "HACCP Systems for Food Service Operations" Tape 2

Appendix G Establishment specific menu item HACCP plan exercise (EXHIBITS G1-G11) packaged separately

Appendix H Food Handling Evaluation Record Log (EXHIBITS H1-H12) packaged separately

Appendix I Philadelphia Department of Public Health Food Establishment Self Inspection Checklist

Appendix J Philadelphia Code and regulations governing food establishment personnel food safety certification

Appendix K Emergency preparedness

Applying HACCP Principles Study Guide:

Lesson 1: Introduction:

A. Background

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) pronounced HAS-SIP is a logical system designed to identify hazards and or critical situations and to produce a structured plan to control these situations. Developed by the Pillsbury Company for the early US Space Program, HACCP has become the accepted method for ensuring safe foods worldwide.

Following its introduction to the food processing industry in 1971, HACCP has seen wide application in many different settings. In the 1993 FDA Model Food Code (Food Code), the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) unveiled its HACCP concept for the retail and foodservice sector. The seven HACCP principles have been carried through each successive Food Code and have become the framework and spearhead for a variety of food safety initiatives.

The FDA feels very strongly that the success of HACCP in the food processing industry can be achieved in the retail and foodservice sectors. Annex V of the Food Code is designed to assist both regulatory and industry food safely personnel in applying HACCP. By applying the HACCP concepts as outlined in the code, both regulatory and industry personnel will have common references and standard methods for developing and implementing HACCP. Ordering information can be found Appendix E.

 

B. Compliance: The Home Study Course, video set and using this study guide

 

This study guide was developed to satisfy the requirements of the City of Philadelphia. As of July 1st, 2001 all certified food service managers must be re-certified. Re-certification requires the completion of Exhibits G-1 through G-11 and Exhibit H-2. These are found in Appendices G and H. These are packaged separately. Find these and set them aside in a safe place. Exhibits G-1 through G-11 require you to prepare a HACCP plan for one of your menu items. Exhibit H-2 requires you to track the food product temperature over time. These exhibits are required to be completed and sent back to Modern Food Safety Solutions for grading. Examples 1 through 12, found in Appendix F Part I in this study-guide show you how to prepare a menu item "Salmon Broccoli Casserole" under a HACCP system. Self -tests and answer keys are found in Appendix F- Parts II. a. and II. b. In Appendix F-Part III you will find the Exercises 1-11 that follows along with the video series "HACCP Systems for Food Service Operations" Tape 2- The HACCP plan for Fried Chicken Breast. Videos included with this home-study program provide greater depth and compliment this study guide.

A three-hour- HACCP Training Class is offered to further strengthen your ability to apply HACCP. Information on registration is found in Appendix C.

 

 

 

 

 

STEP 1

Watch Video 1 (1.2 hours) and then read this study guide. Complete all self-tests in Appendix F Part II a. and check your work in Appendix F Part II b. Fully review Examples 1-12 in Appendix F Part I. Refer back to the video to reinforce key points or to answer self-test questions.

STEP 2

Watch video 2 (2 hours) and complete the Fried Chicken Breast Practice HACCP Exercise in Appendix F Part III. When you are through, you will have prepared a HACCP plan for Fried Chicken Breast.

STEP 3

Select a menu item from your own menu and complete the Establishment Specific Menu Item HACCP Exercise required for 7.5 hours of home study credit. This exercise is found in Appendix G. You must complete all Exhibits G-1 through G-11.

STEP 4

Complete the Establishment Specific Menu Item Food Flow Monitoring Exercise for the item you prepared the HACCP plan for. The form needed is found in Appendix H. Send in Exhibit H- 2.

STEP 5

Send in Exhibits G-1 through G- 11 and Exhibit H- 2 to Modern Food Safety Solutions. The address is found in Appendix C.

Upon satisfying these requirements you will be issued a re-certification document.

C. Managing food safety and self inspection

The emphasis of HACCP is to prevent food safety problems by focusing on highly controllable points in the food production process. The basis of HACCP is sound scientific data, which identifies the most likely hazards and procedures, and their corresponding preventive measures. Once you have identified menu items with hazardous recipes, ingredients and processes, you can conduct a self-inspection that will help you to determine if they under control. HACCP places great emphasis on training your employees in their roles in your food safety program. Before attempting to conduct a self-inspection program it is vital for you to have trained your employees in what you are going to look for, so that they can do the best possible job.

A HACCP plan is the best tool for self inspection, but inspections can be done without one to ensure that the basic facility is being maintained, the environment is sanitary, equipment is in good working order, and that regulatory issues are in compliance; and if they are not, that corrective actions are being planned and carried out. The form recommended for use by the City of Philadelphia and a complete guideline for self-inspection is found in Appendix I.

Most foodborne bacteria need specific temperatures for a specific time in order to survive and grow. By monitoring temperatures and taking timely corrective action you can prevent dangerous bacteria from infesting your food.

The City of Philadelphia requires you to monitor food temperatures at critical control points during food production.

D. The HACCP plan and the HACCP team

The total elements of a HACCP program make up the HACCP plan; the terms HACCP program, HACCP system, HACCP process and HACCP plan are used interchangeably in this study guide. The HACCP plan is developed through the process of applying the seven HACCP principles to all hazardous food items; what results is a written program and procedure manual, which spells out exactly how your food safety system operates. It can be thought of as a blueprint for food safety and must be accurate in every detail. Much more than a manual, the HACCP plan is a working document that you must refer to constantly and keep up to date.

Before the creation of an actual HACCP plan, you must assemble the HACCP team. This requires that managers, maintenance personnel, servers, stewards, cooks, chefs and all those involved with the day-to-day operation of the facility be represented. This multidisciplinary team is known as the HACCP team. The team selects a leader (HACCP coordinator) and decides on a regular meeting schedule to review implementation and determine compliance with the plan.

 

Lesson II: Foodborne Illness

A. Reviewing the causes of illness

Because HACCP is only involved with preventing illness, a basic understanding of the typical foodborne illness agents is necessary. We cannot all be microbiologists, but everyone who is in charge of food production should recognize the microorganisms that make foods unsafe and understand their potential for growth and survival in food products. With this knowledge you will understand the key concepts of HACCP and why the seven HACCP principles are developed the way they are.

Simply put, foodborne illness results from contaminated foods. The contamination may be physical, chemical, or biological in nature. The focus of this study guide is on biological contamination as it results in the greatest number of foodborne illness outbreaks. It must be pointed out that there is still a great need for you to control other types of contamination; these controls are usually placed in a Sanitation Standard Operations Procedure Manual (SSOP), and not managed in the HACCP system. SSOP’s are generally regarded as one of the necessary prerequisites for HACCP plan development.

1. Potentially hazardous foods and its relationship to foodborne illness

Most foods can support the nutritional needs of some kind of microorganism, but certain foods you prepare everyday are placed in a high-risk category because they support the rapid growth of dangerous bacteria known as pathogens. We refer to them as "potentially hazardous foods" or PHF.

If your PHF are held at improper temperature (in the danger zone between 41° and 140° ) for greater than four hours, the numbers of bacteria can become too high.

While bacterial growth rates are important to control, some bacteria and other pathogens do not need to be found in high numbers to cause disease. Organisms sometimes referred to as "low-dose" pathogens or virulent bacteria, virus, and parasites, can cause disease in low numbers. Therefore, favorable conditions for growth of bacteria are not absolutely necessary to cause outbreaks. In fact, most foods can become "hazardous" if contamination with organisms like E. coli O157:H7, Hepatitis A, Shigella, Cyclospora, or Salmonella typhi occurs. A sufficiently high number of these pathogenic bacteria, parasites and virus may already be on raw foods, fruits and vegetables.

Additionally, failure to cook foods that may contain Hepatitis A, Norwalk virus, Salmonella enteritidis, Campylobacter, Vibrio vulnificus, and E. coli results in increased risk. Foods that require thorough cooking include eggs- (S. enteritidis) poultry (Salmonella, Campylobacter) ground beef (E. coli) and shellfish (Hepatitis A, Norwalk virus and Vibrio vulnificus). Fish should be thoroughly cooked to eliminate parasites.

2. Infections

All foodborne infections are caused by bacteria, virus or parasites ingested in foods. Symptoms such as fever and diarrhea are typical signs of infection, although other symptoms may be present. These symptoms are the result of the infectious agent invading the digestive system. It must be noted that some dangerous bacteria, virus and parasites can spread to other organs in the body upon entering the bloodstream and cause severe illness and death.

While a severe hazard to public health, the Human Immune Virus (HIV), which causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (A.I.D.S.), has not been transmitted through foods or beverages and is not included in HACCP.

 

Some common bacteria responsible for infection

o Salmonella spp.

o Shigella spp.

o Campylobacter spp.

o Escherichia coli (E. coli)

o Listeria monocytogenes

o Vibrio spp.

 

Some common viruses responsible for infection

o Norwalk and Norwalk like agents

o Hepatitis A

o Rotavirus

Some common parasites responsible for infection

o Cyclospora cayetanesis

o Cryptosporidium parvum

o Giardia lamblia

o Trichinella spiralis

o Round worms

o Tapeworms

o Toxoplasma gondii

 

 

3. Prevention of infections

Cooking and reheating are critical control points for controlling infectious agents as the destruction of bacteria, virus and parasites through pasteurization (heating), will reduce infectious microorganisms to safe levels. The failure to pasteurize foods, and the subsequent survival of bacteria, virus and parasites results in many cases of illness.

4. Intoxications

A second classification of foodborne illness is known as intoxication. Intoxications come about when a food contains a poisonous compound or has been exposed to high numbers of toxigenixc microorganisms. Intoxications may sometimes occur when poisonous metallic or industrial compounds are unintentionally consumed in foods, but microorganisms that produce toxins are the biggest threat including bacteria, fungi and certain marine and fresh water algae. Preventing intoxications requires a more in-depth study of the nature of foodborne microorganisms.

Toxins

The term toxin is just another name for poison. Certain microorganisms produce poisonous chemical compounds as bi-products or wastes. Toxins may also occur naturally in some foods, or may be unintentionally introduced during production. Foods may become toxic or poisonous through exposure to chemicals like pesticides, sanitizer, degreasers, unsafe metal containers, or through unapproved additives such as sulfates.

Toxigenic bacteria however cause most foodborne intoxication and preventing their growth in foods is often a critical control point. Unfortunately, many bacterial toxins are heat stable substances that maintain their disease causing ability even after being exposed to cooking temperatures. Therefore, while cooking and reheating measures are critical for controlling bacteria, you must support cooking with time and temperature control at other steps to control toxins.

Spores

Of the food-related toxin-producing bacteria, three are also capable of producing spores. Bacterial spores are forms of bacteria having a hardened cell wall around them. When conditions are unfavorable for growth, the cell walls help the bacteria to survive in a dormant state. When conditions become favorable for growth, the bacteria are capable of re-germination. Spores may lie dormant for centuries in dust, soil or sediments. Spores are typically found in foods grown in soil, but may also be found in your common dry stored foods such as rice, powdered milk, beans, or grains. Normally, cooking does not destroy spores but actually activates them increasing the likelihood for foodborne intoxication at later steps.

Toxigenixc bacteria

o Staphylococcus aureus

o Clostridium perfringens (spore former-toxico-infection)

o Clostridium botulinum (anaerobic spore former)

o Bacillus cereus (spore former)

 

 

Staphylococcus aureus

Staph aureus is unique among the toxigenixc bacteria as it is not capable of spore production. Therefore cooking temperatures will destroy this organism. Unfortunately, toxins produced in foods prior to cooking will still remain. You will prevent toxin production by focusing on time and temperature controls for foods like ham, cream filled pastry, and other protein rich foods. Since Staph is commonly found on the skin of up to 50% of people, the need for thorough hand washing is also clear. Wounds and other skin lesions if infected contain very high numbers of Staph cells. Not allowing your workers to handle foods with bare hands, especially with exposed cuts and burns is also a preventive measure.

Clostridium perfringens

Clostridium perfringens is unique among the spore forming organisms in that it does not usually produce a heat stable toxin in foods. However, spores will germinate in foods when favorable temperatures exist for a sufficient time and bacteria may grow rapidly into the many millions of cells. When reaching the intestines, if the number of cells is high enough, a potent enterotoxin will be produced. Preventing this common foodborne illness is focused on the maintenance of rapid cooling techniques and hot holding temperatures to preclude spore germination. You must also reheat certain foods thoroughly as the bacteria can be destroyed after germination in foods and no heat stable toxin is usually produced.

Clostridium botulinum

This bacterium is capable of growth only under anaerobic conditions. After heating, spores of B botulinum become active and germinate in anaerobic conditions. The growth of bacteria in foods leads to the production of a very potent neurotoxin that causes paralysis and death in persons exposed to it. The toxin may be destroyed in foods by heating at 212° for greater that 5 minutes. Controls include acidification below 4.6-pH and time and temperature control. Commercially canned goods are now very safe from botulism, but other novel foods have recently been incriminated:

o Garlic in oil

o Foil wrapped baked potatoes

o Nacho cheese sauce

o Home canned foods

Bacillus cereus

Like all spore forming bacteria, B cereus requires a heat treatment to become active and may remain dormant in foods exposed to dusty conditions. As with other spore formers it is primarily found in soil. After heating the spores can germinate and produce toxin in foods. The toxins are relatively heat stable and survive re heating. Foods incriminated are meats and vegetables, but especially rice. Controls rely on time and temperature after cooking.

 

Naturally occurring toxins in plants and animals

Some types of plants and animals utilized as foods are naturally toxic and some can become toxic through more or less natural means. Some types of naturally toxic foods are:

o Wild mushrooms

o Green potatoes

o Fugu (puffer fish)

o Fava beans

o Garlic in oil (botulism)

 

Some types of fish and shellfish may become toxic. There are two types of intoxications for finfish; scombroid poisoning and ciguatera poisoning. There are several types of intoxications involving shellfish.

Ciguatera

o Jacks (skipjack, amberjack)

o Snapper (red)

o Barracuda

o Grouper

Scombroid

o Mahi- Mahi (dolphin fish)

o Tuna (bigeye, bluefin)

o Bluefish

o Escolar

Toxigenixc mold

Several molds produce toxin as by-products of their growth in foods. These toxins are relatively heat stable and will contaminate many types of grains and nuts. Some of the foods subject to toxic mold include:

o Rye seeds

o Corn

o Peanuts

o Other grains

5. Prevention of intoxications

Intoxications may be prevented in potentially hazardous foods by preparing and storing them at safe temperatures, especially if they have been cooked, or are in a ready to eat (RTE) form. Seafood has it’s own set of guidelines you must follow, beginning with proper receiving temperatures for scombroid related species of fish and verification of certified suppliers for shellfish. Seafood temperature control is critical during all phases of production. Seafood related intoxication is difficult to control, as toxin development may have taken place during or even before harvest. No one should consume wild mushrooms and they cannot be sold at retail.

B. Food Safety Hazards and Prevention with HACCP

1. Science-based food safety hazard control

Traditional sanitation programs rely upon basic environmental sanitation and good food hygiene practices to control food contamination. If strictly adhered too, traditional food safety measures can be effective in reducing risk. In comparison, HACCP systems have shown to be more effective at actually eliminating risk because scientific methods are applied to the identification and control of specific foodborne pathogens. Of most value to HACCP are the sciences of, epidemiology, food science and microbiology. Epidemiology is critical for understanding the risks involved with food service. Epidemiology is the science that deals with the relationship between the factors that influence the occurrence and prevalence of foodborne illness.

Epidemiology tells us:

o The pathogens most likely associated with specific foods

o Which pathogens are the most hazardous

o How pathogens get into your foods

o What conditions are associated with the growth of bacteria

o What conditions are associated with survival of microorganisms

o Which consumers are most likely to become ill or die from foodborne illness

o What food production steps are most important for control

o Which control procedures are the most effective for assuring safe food

The top causes of foodborne illness

The most dangerous food production practices and the leading causes of foodborne illness and death are:

o Improper cooling

o Lapse of greater than 12 hours between preparation and service

o Poor personal hygiene

o Improper reheating

o Improper hot holding

o Unsafe food mixing

o Unapproved sources of foods

o Improper cleaning and sanitizing of equipment

o Cross contamination

o Inadequate cooking

Although these factors tend to change in relative importance from year to year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) these ten factors are always present during any study period. HACCP is effective because it allows you to control the food safety factors that have the greatest risk, namely temperature control problems. However, poor personal hygiene and cross contamination are significant factors that your facility must address if HACCP is to be successful. As stated earlier these hazards must be controlled in prerequisite programs known as SSOP.

2. Controlling hazards with HACCP

Applying the standards in the Food Code is the best method for preventing foodborne illness. The Food Code is science-based in the sense that it relies on the public health principles of epidemiology to identify key concerns. The fields of food science and microbiology also support it. HACCP requires you to apply many of the Food Code standards below; standards not found in HACCP are found in SSOP.

Preventing Infections (*not in food code)

o Obtain food from safe sources

o Maintain personal cleanliness

o Exclude or restrict ill workers

o Maintain PHF out of the danger zone

o Cook all foods to the temperatures found in the code

o Do not contaminate the foods during further processing

o Do not handle foods with bare hands when other utensils are available

o Thoroughly wash all vegetables and fruit before cutting

o Do not serve undercooked meat, poultry, eggs or fish

o Do not serve un-pasteurized dairy products or *juice

o *Do not serve sprouts

o *Continue cooking for ½ hour after adding spices

o Do not cross contaminate foods

o Blast freeze sushi

o Ensure potable water

o Ensure safe sewage disposal

o Maintain a pest free environment

o Protect self-service areas and self service utensils

Preventing Intoxications

o Obtain all foods from safe sources

o Reject all RTE PHF upon arrival if in the danger zone

o Do not serve or consume home canned foods

o Maintain high personal hygiene standards

o Restrict or exclude workers with infected cuts or wounds, or keep them properly bandaged

o Keep all modified atmospheric packaged (MAP) foods out of the danger zone

o Keep hot foods above 140° and cold foods below 41°

o Reheat foods for later service to 165° if held hot

o Cool foods to 70° in 2 hours and to 41° in four additional hours

o Use a utensil not hands to handle ready to eat foods

o Protect self-serve areas

  Complete Self-Test 1 in Appendix F- PART II a.

Lesson III: The Seven HACCP Principles

A. Preliminary HACCP activities

The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Food (NACMCF) advises the federal food regulatory agencies on the application of HACCP principles. The group advises that there are preliminary steps that must be taken before implementing the HACCP process.

o Assemble the HACCP team

o Describe the food and it’s distribution

o Describe the intended users of the food

o *Develop food flow diagrams

o Verify the flow charts

*This study guide discusses flow-charting as part of the hazard analysis principle.

Seven principles underlie the HACCP concept. The first two are preoperational; you will do them infrequently but they support all that follows:

 

Lesson IV

o Conduct a hazard analysis

o Identify critical control points

The next three principles are the operational parts of HACCP that you will do day in and day out:

Lesson V

o Establish critical limits

o Establish a monitoring procedure

o Take corrective actions

The last two principles can be thought of as necessary to manage your system and make sure it is functioning:

Lesson VI

o Establish a verification procedure

o Establish a record keeping system

 

 

B. The HACCP Process: Developing the seven HACCP Principles

Principle 1: Hazard Analysis

Hazards for your specific menu items are evaluated systematically. Food flow diagrams are prepared for use at later steps and preventive measures are developed.

Principle 2: Critical Control Point

The most critical preventive measures essential for preventing foodborne illness are identified.

Principle 3: Critical limits

Standards are established for the preventive measures previously identified.

Principle 4: Monitoring

Standards established at critical control points are monitored on a predetermined frequency and the results documented.

Principle 5: Corrective action

You and your staff take immediate action when monitoring detects a deviation from standards; follow the procedures as predetermined to bring the system under control; make your food safe or discard it.

 

 

 

 

Principle 6: Verification

Your role as a manager is to provide leadership and oversight assuring that employees continue to carry out their duties as previously trained.

Principle 7: Record keeping

Maintain the records that document all activities at critical control points, showing that the program is working, your policies are being followed, and HACCP procedures are taking place as planned.

 

Complete Self-Test 2.

 

Lesson IV: Conduct a Hazard Analysis and Identify Critical Control Points

In the retail sector, the first two principles of HACCP may be subject to more misapplication then in the food-processing sector where HACCP has been applied in a very consistent manner. The dynamic nature of foodservice makes conducting a hazard analysis much more complex, and therefore identifying critical controls is subject to greater error. It is imperative that two things occur; first, a very thorough analysis of the ingredients and actual production methods involved with preparation must take place; and second, a streamlining of the critical control point selection process must occur.

Recognizing where bacteria, virus or parasites may gain entry into a food, or steps leading to the growth or survival of pathogens is especially important.

You must avoid the following pitfalls when preparing HACCP plans:

An incomplete hazard analysis:

There is a tendency to move too quickly from conducting a hazard analysis into identifying critical control points. This may lead to uncontrolled hazards.

Too many critical control points:

During the hazard analysis many points of production will appear to be critical control points, actually, most preventive measures required by the Food Code are general in nature and not critical to any given process. Usually, control of specific pathogens can be accomplished in one step, but complex food production may expose food to several pathogens, requiring several critical control points.

A thorough understanding of the difference between critical and non-critical control points is needed to understand the HACCP process.

A. Principle 1: Hazard Analysis

There are several fundamental concepts that must be treated separately and understood in order to apply hazard analysis to a food product or a menu item. An actual HACCP plan must be bolstered by an SSOP manual, which sets control procedures for significant, but less quantifiable biological, chemical and physical hazards. This hazard analysis section is limited strictly to microorganisms and to temperature control issues.

1. Determining the risks of hazards

Risk of a hazard

The term "risk" is an estimate of the probability that a hazard will occur in a particular food product and the severity of its occurrence. Conditions such as repeated handling; potentially hazardous ingredients, frequent time and temperature fluctuations during production; extended service time; reuse of leftovers; and preparation far in advance of service all increase the risk of a hazard.

Population served

 

The general population shares equal risk of becoming ill, but certain subgroups are at greater risk including pregnant women, children, elderly, and those with compromised immune function due to underlying illness. If the population served contains a larger proportion of at risk individuals the risks are greater.

The presence of potentially hazardous foods

These are foods, which contain sufficient nutrients especially protein, a neutral to slightly acidic pH, and a moisture level above .86Aw. PHF foods may require both time and temperature controls as critical control points.

 

 

Refer to Example 1 in Appendix E: Identifying Potentially Hazardous Foods in a Recipe.

The presence of sensitive ingredients

The presence of ingredients known to have been associated with foodborne illness outbreaks including ground beef; shell eggs, certain seafood, or shellfish increase the risk for that menu item.

Processing and preparation methods

Unusual preparation methods requiring close monitoring, such as acidification of béarnaise sauce made from shell eggs, increases risk.

Staff knowledge and experience

The need for advanced culinary knowledge to prepare a particular item safely such as meringue or ceviche increases risk.

Equipment and facility design

Sufficient equipment, adequate in size and designed properly allows for safer food preparation; lacking sufficient equipment increases risk. Facility designs that lead to cross contamination or that place stress on sanitation efforts increases risks.

 

 

 

Packaging

Anaerobic conditions due to vacuum packaging or modified atmospheres are conducive to spore germination and toxin production; an example is sous vide. These methods increase the risks of hazards.

2. Preparing the food flow diagram (flow chart)

Once you have analyzed your recipe for potentially hazardous foods, analyzed your production, and classified your risks as low, moderate, or severe, it is necessary to create a food flow diagram. Food flow diagrams are simple block diagrams illustrating the steps in production for a particular menu item. Flow charts can be done in a number of ways, but they must be used along with the recipe in order to fully appreciate the procedures, ingredients, and preparation methods depicted.

Typical production steps have been described in Food and Beverage Management textbooks to control various aspects of foodservice, including cost control. This same scheme of control points is useful in understanding the sequence of events that takes place in food production for the purpose of describing food related hazards.

Uses of the flow chart

Flow chart information is used to evaluate whether hazards exist associated with the step depicted. The flow chart is used as the framework for the seven HACCP principles and is considered a prerequisite for HACCP.

Verification of food flow

Steps in food production may not be obvious; it is vitally important that once the food flow has been described, that mangers talk with cooks and others involved with production to assure that no steps have been omitted and that the ingredients and procedures described are actually what takes place in the kitchen.

 

3. Typical food flow diagram

 

Refer to Example 2- Food Flow Diagram

 

4. Hazard Assessment

Recognizing hazards results from determining the steps in production where foods can be exposed to contamination, where growth of bacteria can occur, or where foods must be cooked or reheated. By identifying these points, you will quickly see potential food safety problems. All that is required is to recognize that hazards can be placed in one of three main categories, contamination, growth of bacteria, or survival of microorganisms during pasteurization.

 

Refer to Example 3- Identifying Hazards

 

 

5. Preventive measures

Preventive measures are the flip side of hazards. You must know and describe the measures commonly employed to control contamination, kill harmful pathogens and or prevent the growth of bacteria. Refer to the list of prevention methods for intoxication and infections previously described, and refer to the Food Code and Video 1 for further elaboration.

Refer to Example 4- Determining Preventive Measures

 

B. Principle 2: Identify Critical Control Points

The steps or points at which foodborne illness hazards can be eliminated or prevented are known as critical control points (CCP). Measurable and effective measures must be employed at a point to consider it a CCP for any particular hazard. A CCP may control one particular hazard at one particular step, i.e., cooking controls for infectious bacteria, but controlling other hazards such as spore germination, or toxin development during cooling requires another CCP. Therefore, many complex processes will have multiple CCP throughout the process. Still, in most processes there are usually only a few critical points as compared with the hundreds of general sanitation measures listed in the Food Code. Points at which hazards can be controlled but not reduced to safe levels, destroyed or prevented are simply known as control points.

A document known as the SSOP must be prepared to cover all preventive measures not controlled by CCP. Failure to do so will undermine the HACCP plan and may eventually lead to foodborne illness outbreaks.

 

1. Definition of critical control point

There are actually three accepted definitions for CCP because CCP work in several ways to make food safe.

Definition 1

A CCP is a point, step or procedure in the food system where controls can be applied and a food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels.

Definition 2

A CCP is the step where virus, bacteria and parasites are killed by cooking; or the control point that prevents or slows re-growth, spore germination, or toxin development.

Definition 3

A critical control point is a point or step where hazards existing from previous steps can be reduced to safe levels, prevented or eliminated; or a point at which loss of control will lead to an unacceptable risk of a hazard to a consumer.

 

Two important considerations are:

o If a subsequent step controls a particular hazard, then the step in question is not a critical control point for that hazard

o Concerns which are not related to a specific pathogen, cannot be CCP

2. Typical critical control points

o Safe sources of finfish and shellfish

o Receiving temperatures for scombroid related species of fish

o Thorough cooking of all animal derived foods

o Cooling of previously cooked or RTE PHF foods

o Reheating of prepared foods

o Acidification of sauces to be held at room temperature below pH 4.6

o Hot holding or PHF at 140° or above

o Discarding foods in the danger zone for more than 4 hours (discarding may also be a corrective action)

o Reheating PHF to 165° within 2 hours if held hot

3. Critical control point guidelines

Additional questions to ask at CCP include:

o At this step can existing contamination be eliminated?

o Can the increase of contamination be decreased to safe levels?

o Can unacceptable contamination be prevented?

o Is the safety measure measurable?

4. Critical control point decision tree

A critical control point decision tree is a food item specific sequence of questions to ask about a particular hazard at each step of production. If questions are asked properly, the branches will lead to a determination as to whether the step in question is a CCP or not a CCP for a particular hazard.

 

Refer to Example 5: Critical Control Point Decision Tree

 

5. Example of critical control point selection using the decision tree method

An example would be the cooling step of clam chowder. If we ask questions properly, we’ll find that cooling is a CCP for Bacillus cereus in clam chowder.

Question 1. At the cooling step do preventive measures exist for the hazard Bacillus cereus? The answer is yes; spore germination is controlled by time and temperature.

Question 2. Does this step (time and temperature control) eliminate or reduce the likely occurrence of the hazard (Bacillus cereus) to an acceptable level? The answer is yes, if clam chowder is cooled within 2 hours to 70° and to 41° within 4 more hours, spore germination is precluded.

Question 3. Could contamination with the hazard occur (at the cooling step) in excess of acceptable levels or could this increase to unacceptable levels? The answer is yes; B. cereus is found in ingredients used to make chowder and forms a toxin if foods remain in the danger zone.

Question 4. Will a subsequent step eliminate identified hazards or reduce its likely occurrence to an acceptable level? The answer is no, reheating will not destroy heat stable toxins produced by B. cereus.

Answer: Cooling of clam chowder is a CCP for the hazard B. cereus.

 

 

Refer to Example 6- Establishing Critical Control Points

 

Complete Self-Test 3

 

Lesson V-Determining Critical Limits; Establishing Monitoring Procedures; Establishing Corrective Actions

 

A. Principle 3: Determining Critical Limits

Each preventive measure associated with a critical control point must have a standard that can be immediately and directly monitored by measurement or observation. Standards at CCP must be as specific as possible. These standards are known as critical limits (CL).

1. Definition of critical limit

A critical limit is a criterion that must be met for each preventive measure associated with a CCP to prevent or eliminate an unsafe condition.

2. Sources of standards

The Food Code is the primary source for obtaining critical limit standards for the retail and food service industry. Key preventive measures and standards for cooking, cooling, reheating and storage are found within the first seven chapters of the Food Code. The Food Code should be consulted if you need assistance in defining standards. Inspectors, supervisors, managers, and administrators of the City of Philadelphia Department of Public Health are also resources for Food Code requirements.

The scientific literature contains many useful studies about food handling practices and foodborne illness that can be used to determine safe food production standards. Such studies can be utilized if not in conflict with the Food Code.

Expert help is also available from academic institutions with hospitality management, culinary arts, and food science or public health programs. The contact numbers for Penn State University can be found in the Appendix E.

Of particular interest are the local county agricultural extension field offices. Many extension agents are well informed about food safety issues and are available for free consultations.

Whatever methods you use, the effectiveness of CL’s must be validated and the method of validation included in the HACCP plan. Therefore the best data for standards comes from the Food Code.

Critical limits must be readily measurable as they are designed to destroy pathogens, inhibit their growth and/or toxin production, and prevent unacceptable levels of contamination.

3. Criteria used

o Time

o Temperature

o Water activity

o Ph (level of acidity or alkalinity)

o Physical attributes such as viscosity, thickness, size, density, and weight

o Date marking

o Depth of foods during cooling

o Approved sources for fish and shellfish

4. Examples of critical limits

An example of critical limits at the cook step (CCP) for baked chicken is: "Cooking temperature in Oven 350° ; Bake uncovered; Measure internal temperature in thickest part of breast; Reach 165° for at least 15 seconds".

Refer to Example 7- Establishing Critical Limits

B. Principle 4: Establish Procedures to monitor CCP

Documenting that your food is being prepared safely is the most fundamental part of HACCP because you must be able to prove that your system is working. Therefore, you will spend considerable time monitoring. This is why it is very important to identify critical control points properly. Only essential areas need to be monitored under HACCP.

Without records there is no HACCP!

1. Definition of monitoring

Monitoring is a planned sequence of observations and measurements designed to assess whether a CCP is under control at any given time. If done properly, monitoring will produce an accurate record of food safety information for future HACCP plan verification.

2. Purposes of monitoring

o To track the operation and spot trends leading to a loss of control so corrective actions can be taken before a deviation occurs

o To determine if a deviation has resulted in a loss of control

o To provide a written record to demonstrate compliance with HACCP principles

 

 

3. Types of monitoring measurements

o Time and temperature

o Water activity

o PH

o Visual observations and sensory quality assessment

4. Procedures for monitoring

Continuous monitoring

Continuous monitoring is the best method to spot trends leading to deviations and for detecting critical defects. Data-loggers and other electronic devices may be used. Time temperature integrators (TTI) are small devices used to detect the relationship between time and temperature. An irreversible color change (green to yellow) occurs on a grid when foods rise above a certain temperature, while a subsequent color change (yellow to red) indicates that excessive time was spent at unsafe temperatures. If continuous monitoring is not feasible, then monitoring frequencies must be consistent, and intervals short enough to spot a trend towards loss of control.

Tools for monitoring

o Thermometers: thermisters, thermocouples, bi-metallic

o *Time temperature logs and other forms

o TTI

o Food Flow diagrams

o Graphs

o Clocks, timers, clipboards

* You will find a form to be used in Appendix H- EXHIBIT H-2.

 

Assignment of monitoring personnel

The persons assigned the task of monitoring should be trained and qualified. Supervisors, chefs, or managers are usually chosen, although other personnel may be assigned monitoring under various conditions. The fewest persons necessary for monitoring should be employed to avoid duplication. When a deviation or a critical defect occurs, corrective actions must be taken immediately and the activity recorded. There should also be a policy to inform the person in charge about the disposition of the food, if it was deemed unsafe. All persons must sign and date entries.

Those assigned to monitoring should have the following qualities and abilities:

o Be trained

o Fully appreciate the need for monitoring accuracy

o Have ready access to all areas

o Have necessary equipment and supplies

o Be unbiased and objective

 

 

 

Monitoring Intervals:

When monitoring is not continuous, there will be intervals of time between sampling. Establishing sampling schedules for CCP is a complex issue and statistical analysis outside the scope of this study guide may be necessary. Some rules of thumb include:

o Check refrigerators every 4 hours

o Check steam tables and chafing dishes every hour

o Check cooling rates hourly

o Check reheating rates every 30 minutes

o Monitor salad bars every 30 minutes

o Check all thin foods, such as eggs, fish fillets, and hamburger patties after cooking

The more frequently you monitor food temperatures the more flexibility you have when determining corrective actions. You may be able to save a food that has just gone into the danger zone, but may have to discard foods that have been at unsafe temperatures, too long. There is a trade off between labor cost and food safety, only you and your HACCP team can decide the most cost efficient and effective monitoring frequency.

5. Thermometer usage

Bimetallic metal stem thermometers have long been the industry standard. The advantage is that they are inexpensive and relatively durable. Unfortunately, they have a thick stem, and are not reliable when testing thin foods. Because of the way they are designed they sense temperatures across the two or three inch length stem and record the average temperature of the food. The thermocouple thermometer is the best choice because of its thin stem, tip sensitivity and high degree of accuracy.

 

6. Monitoring equipment

o Calibrated and reliable thermometers

o Sufficient pens, clipboards and forms on hand

o Conspicuously placed clocks

7. Monitoring records

The records generated during monitoring represent the history of food safety for a particular food item. These records should include temperature logs, charts, graphs or other data representations such as spreadsheets if computerized. There are several data management programs for computers now on the market. There are even Internet based data management systems that allow networked computers to share information in real time.

8. Examples of monitoring

An example is recording temperatures of steamed rice in a steam table. If the temperature drops below 140° for less than 2 hours, the rice can be brought back up to 165° within 2 hours, if more than two hours elapse, the product is discarded as a corrective action.

Refer to Example 8- Establish Monitoring System

 

C. Principle 5: Take corrective action

It is the duty of the person in charge (PIC) to take prompt, appropriate action if monitoring indicates a trend towards the loss of control at a critical control point. This prevents hazards from occurring. A corrective action plan is a plan of action to take at each CCP. Corrective actions are described ahead of time in the HACCP plan and recorded and saved when taken. The documentation is normally part of the monitoring form.

You must decide who will take these actions and what to do if the monitoring of CCP detects a problem. The CCP must be brought under control and the foods must be made safe or discarded.

1. Definition of corrective action

A planned procedure to follow at a CCP when monitoring detects a trend toward loss of control or when a loss of control has occurred.

2. Importance of corrective actions

Corrective actions are critical to HACCP. If they are taken promptly and recorded, it helps to support the validity of your entire HACCP system. Failure to record corrective actions taken weakens the HACCP plan and casts doubt on its validity. Corrective actions are necessary because food service production systems are dynamic and occasionally things will go wrong.

3. Examples of corrective actions

The type of corrective action depends on the critical control point where the defect occurred. For example, if you were cooking a pork roast to 155° and it was supposed to be cooked by 2:00 am and the third shift cook found the roast at 115° , the corrective action would be continue to cook the roast until the internal temperature reads 155° for at least 15 seconds. The corrective action plan should direct the cook to the Chef who then determines why the roast did not reach the final cooking temperature on time and ensures this does not continue to happen.

There may also be times when a critical defect occurs and your foods cannot be made safe. If this occurs, the only corrective action is to discard the food. If problems with control points continue, a re-evaluation of the HACCP plan should be made; the plan must be altered if the original controls do not work. HACCP is all about prevention, if a food cannot be made safely under a HACCP plan it should not be made at all.

4. Purpose of corrective actions

o To adjust the process, such as cooking temperatures or cooling rates to maintain control or prevent a deviation

o To correct the cause of the deviation

o To re-establish control over the process and critical control point

o To determine the safety and proper disposition of the food being produced while a defect was occurring

o To maintain records of corrective actions

 

 

 

Refer to Example 9- Establish Corrective Action Plan

 

 

Complete Self-Test 4

 

Lesson VI: Verification and Record Keeping

A. Principle 6: Verification

1. Definition of verification

Verification means the methods, procedures, and tests used to document compliance with the HACCP program.

2. Persons responsible

Owners, management, supervisors and inspectors are held responsible for the safety of the foods served to the public- your customers. Therefore the records and procedures you follow must be available for review by all persons responsible for food safety. The purpose of looking at your records is to insure that your documentation demonstrates that hazards are properly identified and under control at all times.

A visual inspection of the operation and verification of all records by management is required on a routine basis. Regulatory visits provide a means of verification, but self-inspection will bring you far more benefits; HACCP is in fact a self-inspection program. The City of Philadelphia now requires you to perform self-inspections quarterly. A complete discussion of the Philadelphia self-inspection requirements is found in Appendix I.

3. Verification activities

Some important verification activities include:

o Establish verification schedules

o Review the HACCP plan

o Review CCP monitoring records

o Spot check critical control points

o Check calibration of instruments

o Random sampling for microanalysis

o Review the application of the HACCP principles

o Review previous verification records

Verification determines if the HACCP plan is being followed. You do this by verifying that your critical control points have been identified, and that they are being monitored and controlled. Many verification procedures are done daily, such as checking time and temperature logs, or thermometer calibration records. However, every so often a complete formal review of your entire HACCP system is needed and a report is prepared. The HACCP team should be involved with this process, but third parties are often called upon, as outside auditors add validity to the findings.

Most importantly, verification confirms that all hazards were properly controlled at the time the HACCP system was put in place and that modifications were made as necessary to the plan to keep it relevant. To ensure effectiveness, verification also confirms the validity of the critical limit standards and the accuracy of the flow charts.

Intensive reviews of the HACCP plan should be done at least yearly and preferably four times a year until the system is confirmed as effective. Verification must also be conducted anytime there are changes to your menu items or new ingredients are added. You will also verify your plan anytime there are new food safety issues or scientific developments affecting the safety of foods you produce, or in the remote chance that you have an outbreak. Remember, if you are doing HACCP correctly the chance of foodborne illness outbreaks are very small but still possible.

 

Refer to Example 10- Establish Verification System

 

B. Principle 7: Record Keeping

Records are the written evidence that your HACCP plan is controlling hazards. Auditing those records is a significant part of the verification procedure previously discussed.

Record keeping is a concept that sets HACCP apart from the traditional approach to food safety. Because you keep records of compliance, there is a clear picture of food safety. This will help to establish your "due diligence" in preventing the transmission of illness to customers and to employees. Records related to compliance at CCP will be helpful to regulatory staff and they may request to see them. Proprietary information can be kept secret.

1. The types of HACCP records important to regulators are:

o Food flow diagrams

o Recipes

o Time and temperature logs

o Calibration records

o Corrective actions taken

o SSOP manuals

o Verification records

o Training records

2. The HACCP plan must indicate

o Which records to keep

o The retention time for records

o Persons responsible for record keeping

o The location of records

The types of records and the amount of time to keep them are not specified in the Food Code. The HACCP team makes these decisions, but remember without records there is no HACCP.

When managing HACCP systems you should strive to maintain a balance between too much and too little paper work understanding that keeping too little HACCP information leads to problems in tracking compliance.

One way to minimize the amount of extra paperwork needed is to use existing records. An example is using invoices to record receiving temperatures. Production sheets may also be used to record temperatures of food produced in large-scale operations. Recipes are a key source of records as CCP data can be placed directly on them. The records to control food costs (such as yield) can sometimes be altered to allow temperature and time control information to be added.

In Appendix I you will also find the form for the Philadelphia Department of Public Health Food Establishment Self Inspection Checklist.

3. Types of records to be maintained

The most basic record of all is your HACCP plan. It contains information about hazards, critical controls and other related items including:

o A description of your menu items and PHF ingredients

o Food flow diagrams

o Hazards, preventive measures and CCP

o Critical limits and the rational and supporting its validity (or the Food Code standard)

o Monitoring procedures including any sampling procedures or tests

o Corrective actions for all CCP

o A description of all forms used in record keeping and their location

o All individuals responsible for carrying out the plan

o The training logs and curriculum

o Verification information

Events at critical control points must be kept on file. The amount of records and their sophistication may vary from establishment to establishment but you should use the simplest most effective system. Such a record keeping system could be as simple as a file cabinet with files. A file is created for each menu item covered by the HACCP plan. In each menu item file would be the list of suppliers, recipe and the flow chart for production. A separate file then could be set up for each HACCP principle with specific policies and procedures spelled out for each menu item.

4. To support the HACCP plan itself you may keep records such as:

o Employee training programs

o Plans detailing how the HACCP plan will be implemented

o Ingredients and supplier information

o Storage temperatures

o Product shelf life

o Make up and responsibility of the HACCP team

 

 

 

Refer to Example 11 Establish a Record keeping system

 

Complete Self-Test 5

 

 

Lesson VII Preparing a Summary Table

A summary table is a quick reference guide that lists most of the important information for the seven principles of HACCP as they are applied to a menu item. Regulatory and third party inspectors prefer to begin a HACCP audit by familiarizing themselves with a summary of specific HACCP plan criteria.

Summary tables also make excellent training tools because one can see at a glance the key features of HACCP.

Refer to Example 12- HACCP Summary Table

 

 

Lesson VIII: Complying with City of Philadelphia Requirements

The City of Philadelphia is one of the first jurisdictions in the nation to require specific HACCP knowledge among its food establishments and to test that competency with the submittal of a HACCP-based exercise.

This study guide, films, and the exercises that follow will prepare you to complete a HACCP-based exercise for one or more of your own menu items. For your 7.5 hours of home study credit you must complete the Establishment Specific Menu Item HACCP Plan exercise in Appendix G. To get full credit from the City of Philadelphia Department of Public Health, you must also submit the Food Handling Evaluation Record Log for a specific menu item found in Appendix H. You will learn this method in more detail by doing the Fried Chicken Breast Exercise in Appendix F Part III of this study guide. Although that exercise is for Fried Chicken Breast, you will be able to follow the same pattern for any menu item that you select. You need not create a temperature monitoring form as that form has been provided for you in Appendix H EXHIBIT H-2.

 

Lesson IX: Overcoming Barriers to HACCP Implementation

A. Management Commitment

In order for food safety and HACCP to succeed in your organization, upper management must be visibly supportive. There must be a strong commitment to the HACCP principles; especially those that are time consuming such as monitoring, record keeping, and verification. A powerful tool for communication is the company mission statement, representing the goals of the organization in creating and maintaining a HACCP system.

True commitment comes from a sincere belief that food safety is good for the company and that HACCP will not only improve food safety but added dividends such as lower labor and food cost will follow -and they do. Another benefit is that improving sanitation also improves morale; it therefore lowers turnover rates of employees.

Although the benefits far exceed the costs there are some concerns. Training is a major investment in time. There are training tapes on the practical application of HACCP available from several sources that you will find in Appendix E, and workshops are available through professional organizations and through Modern Food Safety Solutions. Because HACCP is so specific, when you alter your ingredients or change production measures it is possible to introduce new hazards that are not controlled by the existing system. This requires you to revamp the hazard analysis and keep up with new critical controls for new processes. Computer based systems are now available to develop HACCP plans and to update records; these should be evaluated; firms specializing in HACCP data management can be found again in Appendix E.

Management commitment is needed to allow managers the time and the resources necessary to keep HACCP going. Commitment means you are assured a high likelihood of safe foods and a low probability of outbreaks, death, investigations, and lawsuits.

B. Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures

Managers must develop as many standard procedures for general sanitation as possible, including:

o Standard recipes

o Sanitizer concentration tests and logs

o Chemical control includes MSDS sheets and "Right to Know" posters

o Thermometer calibration procedures and logs

o Hand washing procedures, personal hygiene and training systems

o Sanitary glove usage procedures

o Cleaning schedules

o Integrated Pest Management (IPM) procedures

o Equipment maintenance logs

o Receiving practices

o Storage practices

o Employee health requirements

o Various training programs

Failure to have standard operations ensures that managers will spend more time correcting sanitation problems and so will have less time to devote to HACCP.

Involving employees in sanitation and upkeep generates employee commitment. Your employees will feel better about themselves if you let them make some decisions about how to achieve food safety. This helps them to "buy into" HACCP.

Finally, management must demonstrate that it values feedback concerning sanitation from employees and is flexible enough to institute positive changes.

 

C. Education and training

The key to a successful HACCP program is trained staff. Education and training is required to make HACCP work. Training must be ongoing and targeted to the specific needs of your employees. General food safety education is needed as well. The depth is dependent upon your employees’ educational and foodservice backgrounds and the scope of the operation.

An overview of the HACCP program is necessary to acquaint employees with the concept. Once it is grasped then individual duties in regards HACCP must be developed. You should stress critical control points during training.

As implementation progresses there will arise a need for further instruction and one-on-one and group sessions. For example, monitoring will clearly be ineffective if your employees have not completely understood how to use thermometers or don’t know where to find them. Your monitoring system can fail due to the lack of a pencil.

The HACCP team should be very involved in all aspects of HACCP but especially in training. Qualified trainers should be sought out for the initial training on HACCP concepts unless you have senior staff fully familiar with both general sanitation and HACCP. Ongoing training conducted by you and your staff focusing on the procedural elements of HACCP is advised, however.

D. Facility design

HACCP can be performed effectively even in poorly designed kitchens, but it cannot be carried out efficiently. To carry out HACCP and get the full benefit from it, there are many facility design considerations.

Traffic patterns that lead to cross contamination, lack of adequate storage, lack of sufficient preparation or service areas all increase the probability of hazardous situations and make monitoring functions difficult. If equipment is insufficient then foods are more likely to become hazardous through ineffective processing or time and temperature abuse. Good managers can overcome some of these problems but typically it requires changes in equipment, re-designing and reorganization of the layout for real correction.

Architectural design firms that understand traffic patterns, preparation practices and the best location for equipment are occasionally available. Qualified HACCP experts can get the most out of a design in regards food safety. Remember to contact plans review personnel in the health department. Regulatory personnel must also review specifications to determine if the layout and equipment meet code. Preparing a HACCP plan before designing a food facility will help to insure that the necessary features are provided.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix A: Glossary

Acceptable levels: the presence of a hazard below the threshold for causing disease

Anaerobic: a condition of no oxygen

Anaerobic pathogen: a disease-causing organism capable of growth in atmospheres containing no oxygen

Bacteria: single celled microorganisms classified as simple plants

Bacterial growth: the increase in numbers of cells through the process of cell division

Biological contamination: the presence of microorganisms or their byproducts at unsafe or undesirable levels

Chemical contamination: the presence of chemical substances at unsafe or undesirable levels

Ciguatera: a disease caused by the ingestion of marine fish contaminated with cigua-toxin

Contamination: the presence in a food of undesirable or unsafe levels of harmful substances

Continuous inspection: monitoring which occurs continuously, and the records produced for verification purposes

Continuous monitoring: an unbroken series of measurements or observations at a critical control point

Control point- any point in a food production system where hazards can be controlled

Corrective action plan- the written document describing the procedures to follow if monitoring detects a deviation from standards at a critical control point

Critical defect: failure of control at a critical control point leading to unacceptable risk of a hazard

Danger zone: the temperatures most favorable for bacterial growth in a potentially hazardous food

Deviation: Failure to meet a required critical limit resulting in a risk of a hazard

Enterotoxin: a toxin produced in the intestines

Flow chart: a food flow diagram that depicts the sequence of steps necessary to prepare a menu item or food product

Flow of food: the path that foods travel from receipt to service during preparation

Foodborne illness: a disease caused by the ingestion of contaminated foods

Foodborne illness outbreak: transmission of disease from a food establishment, food employee or product to two or more people who experience a similar illness

Food Code: a model code published by the US Food and drug Administration, although not a federal requirement it is adopted by all levels of government as a consistent standard to insure that food is safe and properly protected and presented at retail and foodservice establishments

Germinate: to evolve from an inactive state to an active state

HACCP plan: means a written document that delineates the formal procedures to following the seven HACCP principles

HACCP team: an interdisciplinary group responsible for developing and implementing the HACCP plan

Hazard: a biological, chemical or physical property that may cause an illness or other health risk

Infection: a disease caused by microbes that invade and multiply in the body, organs, tissues or cells

Intoxication: an illness caused by poisonous chemical compounds produced by some types of plants or animals or through the addition of harmful chemical substances

Pasteurization: heat treatment of foods to reduce the number of bacteria, parasites and virus to safe levels

Pathogen: a disease-causing agent, usually of biological origin.

Plans review: a function of government and a step in the remodeling or design of food facilities to insure compliance with codes.

Person in charge: the person present at the food establishment in charge of the operation

Physical contamination: the presence of foreign objects in food at dangerous or undesirable levels

Potentially hazardous foods: foods which have the qualities necessary to support the rapid growth of pathogens consisting of eggs, seafood, meat, poultry dairy products, cooked vegetables, garlic in oil, sprouts, cut melons and other foods

Preventive measures: an action to exclude, destroy, eliminate, or reduce a hazard or prevent contamination through effective means and physical, chemical or other factors that can be used to control a hazard

Product: the output that a food facility provides to a customer

Risk: the estimate of the likely occurrence of hazards

Scombroid poisoning; a foodborne illness characterized by mild to severe neurological symptoms including tingling in face and extremities, burning or tingling sensation of mouth and lips, rapid heart beat, rash, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and prostration

Severity: the seriousness of a health hazard

Self-inspection: a process by which a food facility identifies, records and corrects critical safety measures and regulatory issues by monitoring food handling practices, equipment and the environment

Sous vide: French for under a vacuum. Foods partially cooked for later service, packaged without air for re-thermalizing at a later step in production

Spore: in a bacterium the hardened seed like structure caused by a thickening of the cell wall allowing the cell to resist drying and harmful environmental effects

Sanitation Standard Operating Procedure: written plans for maintenance, cleaning, personal hygiene, sanitizing, storage, service and receiving that support the HACCP system

Standards: measures to use as a comparison for quality and safety

Toxin: poisonous chemical substances produced by plants, animals, bacteria and virus. Toxin may be produced in the food itself or in the victim

Toxigenixc: capable of toxin production

Traditional inspection: the use of observations and measurement of food hygiene, general sanitation, personal hygiene and facility and equipment maintenance to create healthful conditions

Virulent: describes the degree of capability to cause disease

Virus: an infectious agent that is capable of reproduction only in a host cell

Appendix B: Advisory Board

 

 

Chuck Higgins
Senior Environmental Health Officer
Environmental Health Services Branch
National Center for Environmental Health / CDC
4770 Buford Hwy  (MS - F28)
Atlanta, GA  30341
(770) 488-4180  voice
(770) 488-7310  fax
e-mail: cth4@cdc.gov
web: http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehserv
 

Mr. Larry Robertson, R.S.

Manager of Specifications and Product Resources

Darden Restaurants

PO Box 593330

Orlando, FL 32859-3330

407-245-4784

FAX 407-245-5173

Debby Newslow ASQC/CQA

Contact Debby Newslow at newsdl@aol.com 
1-888-662-7922
Fax: 407-290-0252

G. Michael Harris, M.S., C.E.C., C.C.E.

Professor of Food and Beverage Management

Bethune Cookman College

640 Dr. Mary McCleod Bethune Blvd

Daytona Beach, Fl 32114-3099

Ph 904 255 1401 ext. 471; FAX 904 257 5960

E mail drchef@bennettandco.com

Appendix C: Contact information

To contact the author:

Roy E. Costa, R.S., M.S.

Professor Hospitality and Tourism Institute

Valencia Community College

2694 Magnolia Road

DeLand, Florida 32720

E-mail: RCOSTA1@cfl.rr.com

Office: 904 734 5187

FAX: 904 943 9602

To contact Modern Food Safety Solutions:

George DeMirjian B.S., R.S.

Modern Food Safety Solutions

708-A Cedar Street

Riverton, N.J. 08077

E-mail: training@modernfoodsafety.com

Web: www.modernfoodsafety.com

1-888-665-3070

Appendix D: Bibliography

Cichy, R.F. (1994) Quality sanitation management

East Lansing MI

Educational Institute of the American Hotel & Motel Association

Corlett, D.A., and Pierson, M.D. HACCP, Principles and Applications, ed. Chapman and Hall, New York. 1992

Education Foundation of the National Restaurant Association, (1999). ServSafe Course Book,

Food and Drug Administration (1998) Food Code-1997, Recommendations of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Tisler, J.M. Food and Drug Administration, Centers for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (1994) FDA’s application of HACCP to retail food systems.

IAFP (International Association of Milk, Food and Environmental Sanitarians (1991) Procedures to implement the hazard analysis and critical control point system. IAFP document. 502 E Lincoln Way. Ames, IA 50010-6666, USA.

LaVella, B.W., & Bostick, J.L. (1994). HACCP for food service professionals. St Louis, LaVella Food Specialists.

Loken, J.K. (1995) The HACCP food safety manual. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

NFPA. 1995. HACCP. Establishing Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Programs. A Workshop Manual. National Food Processor Association, Washington, D.C.

National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (1994). The role of regulatory agencies and industry in HACCP. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 21,187-195.

Schmidt, R.H. (1995) Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP): overview of principles & application. University of Fl., Gainesville.

Snyder, O.P. (1991) food safety technical standards report. Journal of Foodservice Systems, 6, 107-139.

Appendix E: Associations and Organizations for Future Reference

American Hotel Motel Association

The Educational Institute

800 North Magnolia Avenue

Ste. 1800

Orlando FL 32803

1 (800) 344-4381

The Educational Foundation of the National Restaurant Association

Technical Education Division

250 South Wacker Drive, Suite 1400

Chicago, IL. 60606-5834

(312)-715-1010

1 (800) 765-2122

Food and Drug Administration

Division of HACCP Programs

200 C Street SW

Washington, DC 20204

Hospitality Institute of Technology and Management

830 Transfer Road, Suite 35

St. Paul, MN 55114

(612) 646-7077

International Association for Food Protection

(IAFP)

502 East Lincoln Way

Ames, IA 50010-6666

(305) 977-0767

National Environmental Health Association

720 South Colorado Blvd.

Denver, CO 80222

(303) 756-0909

LaVella Food Specialist

332 Halcyon

St. Louis, MO 63122

(314) 822-9304

FAX (314) 822-9304

John Byrnes

Penn State University

Penn State Cooperative Extension

4601 Market Street, 2nd floor

Philadelphia, PA 19139

Phone: (215) 471-2220

 

 

 

The National Restaurant Association

1200 17th Street NW

Washington, DC 20336-3097

(203) 331-5900

 

To Obtain a Food Code:

Contact: National Technical Information Services

Springfield VA 22161 - CALL 1 800 553 NTIS

Norback, Ley & Associates LLC
3022 Woodland Trail
Middleton, WI 53562 USA
Telephone: (608) 233 3814
Fax: (608) 233 3895
Email: nla@norbackley.com
Web Page: www.norbackley.com

Steton Technology Group

2711 Santa Clara Drive

Santa Clara UT 84765

Phone: (435) 656-5655

Fax: 435 656-5860

 

City of Philadelphia

Office of Food Protection

321 University Avenue

2nd Floor

Philadelphia, PA 19104

Appendix F- PART I: APPLYING HACCP PRINCIPLES TO A MENU ITEM

All of the following (12) Examples refer to the menu item: Salmon Broccoli Casserole. Preparation is for 100 persons (the general public) attending a banquet.

 

Example 1

Determine the Potentially Hazardous Ingredients

 

Salmon Broccoli Casserole-Serves 100

Ingredients:

10 Vidalia onions

1 qt. Cooking oil

2 # 10 cans of mushrooms

12 heads of broccoli

5 lbs of short grain rice

5 # 10 cans of salmon

1 flat of eggs

12 quarts of cream sauce (see recipe)

2.5 lb block of Romano cheese

 

Pre-preparation

Cook the rice following the steamed rice recipe and HACCP handling instructions. Prepare cream sauce following the cream sauce recipe and HACCP handling instructions.

Preparation:

1. Dice and sauté onions in oil in tilt skillet

2. Add mushrooms and broccoli, cook 1 to 2 minutes

3. Combine vegetables with cooked rice, drained salmon, and eggs in large steam jacketed kettle (do not cook)

4. Stir cream sauce into salmon, egg, rice and vegetable mixture-mix thoroughly

5. Portion evenly into 10 greased baking pans

6. Top with grated Romano cheese

7. Bake in 350° oven until bubbling

 

Potentially hazardous foods: Cream sauce: eggs; cooked rice: salmon (upon removal from

can); mushrooms and broccoli (upon cooking).

 

Example 2.

Create a Food Flow Diagram for Salmon Broccoli Casserole

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Example 3 Identify Hazards

 

Identification of hazards of contamination, growth or survival at process steps

Process step

Potential Hazard

Receiving eggs, cream, canned salmon, dry goods, onions and broccoli

 

Contamination on raw vegetables. Contamination in eggs. Contaminated can goods. Growth of bacteria in eggs and milk.

Storage of perishables and stores

 

Cross contamination of foods. Contamination with chemicals and foreign objects. Growth of bacteria in eggs, dairy, cheese. Spoilage.

Prepare ingredients

 

 

Contamination from people, raw foods, environment, utensils, equipment, wastewater, chemicals and foreign objects. Growth of bacteria during prep.

Cook mushrooms and onions

Survival of spores and vegetative bacteria, parasites and virus. Chemical contamination. Physical contamination.

Combine and mix ingredients

 

Contamination with toxins and bacteria from pre-cooked rice and cream sauce

Cook (bake)

 

 

Survival of Salmonella in eggs, other bacteria from pre-prepared rice and cream sauce handling. Survival of spores; survival of toxins. Contamination by chemicals. Contamination by foreign objects.

Cool

Growth of bacteria.

Cold storage

Growth of bacteria. Cross contamination

Reheat

Survival of pathogens, growth of bacteria

Hold

Growth of bacteria

Serve

Contamination, growth of bacteria

Discard

None

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Example 4: Establish Preventive Measures

 

Study the Food Code and other authorities to determine the best methods to prevent hazards. Some, but not all of these will be critical control points.

Process Step

Preventive measure

Receiving

Examine truck for cleanliness and temperature controls. Examine packages for sound packaging. Take temperatures of foods. No signs of vermin in vegetables and boxes. Put foods away immediately. Inspect eggs for USDA seal and for sound condition. Throw out empty boxes. Inspect salmon cans for sound condition. Eggs must be 45° or less, dairy 41° . REJECT ANY DAMAGED; OUT OF DATE; OFF TEMP FOODS.

Storage

Maintain 50% relative humidity in dry storage and 50° storage temp for vegetables. Store PHF at 41° or less. Separate raw vegetables from eggs and dairy. Store RTE and raw foods in different locations. Place foods six inches of floor, on wire rack shelves. Maintain space around foods in cooler. Store raw eggs on lowest shelf. Make sure all packages are sound or place foods in safe containers. Use FIFO inventory controls.

Prepare

Use clean sanitized utensils. Wash and trim broccoli before cooking. Throw away rubber bands. Sanitize counters and tabletops and all equipment. Wash hands in hot water with soap for 20 seconds before preparing foods. Prepare raw foods separately from cooked foods. Do not exceed 4 hours at room temp with PHF foods. Use chemicals safely. All employees in good health. Maintain 50-PPM FAC in cloth rinse water, ensure dish-machine is providing 50 PPM in final rinse. Check with test strips. All sinks have hot and cold running water under pressure. Hand sinks have paper towels, soap, and hand washing reminder sign up.

Cook onions and mushrooms

Wash mushrooms before cooking. Peel outer leaves of onion.

Combine ingredients

Use clean sanitized equipment and utensils, head coverings in place. Do not wear excessive jewelry. Do not cough or sneeze near foods. Ensure that rice and cream sauce were prepared under the HACCP plan guidelines for those recipes. Check those records before using. Cream sauce at 41° or less, rice at 41° or less or 140° or above.

Bake

Make sure pans are not over full. Reach 165° within 2 hours in oven in each pan, in center of product. Make sure oven is set on 350° . Check calibration of thermometers. Check accuracy of timer. Use tip sensitive thermocouple.

Cooling

Take three pans at a time and place in ice bath. Make up in large clean sanitized buss tubs. Use 60% ice 40% water. Put rock salt in ice. Make sure edge of pan is in contact with ice. Reduce temperature in each of ten pans to 70° in two hours. When 70° , take each pan and place in walk-in cooler uncovered on the highest shelves. Make sure airflow is good around wire racks. Check temperatures hourly with tip sensitive thermocouple. Must reach 41° or less in four more hours.

Store

Store pans covered after cooling on highest shelves away from raw foods. Cover securely. Maintain airflow around pans. Check ambient air temperature, verify with product thermometers every four hours. Maintain product at 41° or less. Use within seven days. Date mark with use-by date. Use FIFO.

Reheat

Reach 165° within 2 hours in oven in each pan, in center of product. Make sure oven is set on 350° . Check calibration of thermometers. Check accuracy of timer. Use tip sensitive thermocouple.

Hold hot

Make sure there is water in steam table. Turn on steam table. Set thermostat accurately, when steam table is hot, place hot pans in hot steam table. Wrap in plastic wrap. Keep covered until service. Check temperature every half hour with thermocouple. Maintain 140° or more as measured in center of product.

Serve

Use clean sanitized utensils to serve. All employees in good health. All employees signed health disclosure agreement. All service personnel have head coverings, no excessive jewelry. All employees dispensing or serving have clean fingers, nails, hands and no un-bandaged wounds. Casseroles placed for self-service are under sneeze guards, Serving utensils kept in product with handles out. Self-serve display cases have heat lamps. All products maintained at 140° or greater until served. Use chemicals safely. Heat lamps are shatterproof non-breakable bulbs. Signs up telling customers to get a new plate for refills. Inspect self-serve area every 15 minutes.

Discard

All un eaten casseroles are thrown out at end of meal period. DO NOT SAVE LEFT OVERS.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXAMPLE 5: DECISION TREE

 

 

 

EXAMPLE 6: Establish critical control points

 

Process Step

Critical Control Point

Receiving

NO-Later steps will control significant hazards

Storage

NO- Later steps will control significant hazards

Prepare

NO-Later steps will control significant hazards

Sauté

NO-Later steps will control significant hazards

Combine (CCP) 1

 

YES- cream sauce and cooked rice could have toxins-cooking will not control them, no other step will control them

Cook (CCP) 2

 

 

YES- bacteria surviving from previous steps can be destroyed and hazards from vegetative bacteria, virus, and parasites can be reduced to safe levels.

Cool (CCP) 3

YES- Spores can grow and toxins produced are heat stable. Vegetative pathogens can grow to unacceptable levels. Proper cooling will minimize hazards to safe levels.

Store (CCP) 4

YES- Spores can grow and toxins can be produced. Vegetative pathogens can grow to unacceptable levels. Proper temperature control will minimize hazards to safe levels.

Reheat (CCP) 5

YES- Vegetative pathogens surviving from previous steps can be destroyed and a hazard eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels. No further step will control these hazards.

Hot hold (CCP) 6

YES- Spores can grow and toxins can be produced. Vegetative pathogens can grow to unacceptable levels. Proper temperature control will minimize hazards to safe levels. No other step in the process afterwards will control hazards.

Serve

NO- temperature related hazards are not significant enough to warrant control in HACCP; personal hygiene hazards, cross contamination, and employee health hazards are controlled in SSOP.

Discard

NO- foods are not consumed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXAMPLE: 7 Establish Critical Limits

 

Critical Control Point

Critical limit

Combining ingredients

Ensure that rice and cream sauce were prepared under the HACCP plan guidelines for those recipes. Check those records before using. Cream sauce must be at 41° or less, and rice at 41° or less or 140° or above before use.

Baking

Make sure pans are not overfull. Casseroles must reach 165° within 2 hours in each pan, in center of product. Make sure oven is set on 350° . Check calibration of thermometers. Check accuracy of timer. Use tip sensitive thermocouple.

Cooling

Take three pans at a time and place in ice bath. Make up in large clean sanitized buss tubs. Use 60% ice 40% water. Put rock salt in ice. Make sure top edge of pan is in contact with ice. Reduce temperature in each of the ten pans to 70° in two hours. When at 70° , take each pan and place it in the walk-in cooler uncovered on highest shelves. Make sure airflow is adequate around wire racks. Check temperatures hourly with tip sensitive thermocouple. Must reach 41° or less in four more hours.

Cold Storage

Store pans covered after cooling on highest shelves away from raw foods. Cover securely. Maintain airflow around pans. Check ambient air temperature; verify temp with product thermometers every four hours. Maintain product at 41° or less. Use within seven days. Date mark with use-by date. Use FIFO.

Re-heating

Reach 165° within 2 hours in each pan, in center of product. Make sure oven is set on 350° . Check calibration of thermometers. Check accuracy of timer. Use tip sensitive thermocouple.

Holding Hot

Make sure there is water in steam table. Turn on steam table. Set thermostat accurately, place inserts in the hot water. When steam table is hot, place hot pans in steam table. Keep covered until service. Wrap in plastic wrap. Check temperature every half hour with thermocouple. Maintain 140° or more as measured in center of product.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXAMPLE 8: Establish Monitoring Procedures

Critical Control Point

Monitoring activity

Combine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Before adding ingredients chef checks the monitoring log for cooling of cream sauce and determines compliance. Chef checks HACCP Time/Temperature Log for rice and determines compliance. Chef checks temperature with tip sensitive thermocouple in center of rice and in center of cream sauce and verifies that both are at 41° or less if held cold prior to use. If rice is held hot, rice must be 140° . Chef records the temperature of rice and cream sauce before usage on the cream sauce and rice HACCP Storage Temperature Monitoring Logs.

Bake

Chef checks the center of each of ten casseroles with a thermocouple upon removal from the Alto sham. The Chef records the final cooking temperatures of each on the HACCP Cooking Temperature Log. Pans must reach 165° within two hours. Chef checks accuracy of timer with stopwatch weekly and records variance on HACCP T/T Log.

Cooling

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Head Cook ensures that four buss-tubs are used for the ice bath and that ten pans are in an ice water, no more than 3 pans to a tub. Head Cook ensures ice is at a 60% ice; to 40% water mixture and that ice is salted with 1 tsp of salt. Head cook ensures that pans are placed directly from oven into the ice bath. Chef checks temperature every hour with thermocouple and ensures pans cool quickly. Chef records temperatures hourly on HACCP Time/Temperature Log. Chef ensures that casseroles cool to 70° in two hours, and to 41° in four additional hours.

Cold storage

 

 

 

 

 

Head Cook checks walk-in cooler temperature every four hours and records temperatures on HACCP Cold Storage Log. Head cook makes sure that items are tightly covered and stored away from contamination on wire racks with good airflow. Head cook checks date marking. Head Cook records any problems on HACCP Cold Storage Log

Reheat

 

 

 

 

 

Head Cook makes sure that oven thermostat is set on 350° and preheated prior to placing casseroles in it. Head Cook sets timer and notes beginning time and temperature on the HACCP Time/Temperature Log. Head Cook uses thermocouple and records temperature every half hour and ensures that casseroles have reached 165° within two hours.

Hot Hold

Head Cook places hot casseroles in steam tables and checks product temperatures in the center of each casserole every hour and maintains products at 140° or more as measured in center of product. Temperatures are recorded on HACCP Time/Temperature Log.

 

EXAMPLE 9: TAKING CORRECTIVE ACTIONS

Critical Limits

Corrective Actions

Combine ingredients

 

 

 

 

If ingredients are above 41° or below 140°

Chef discards products and makes fresh cream sauce and steamed rice. Chef determines why products were at unsafe temperature and reports deviation to G.M. for investigation. Chef notates corrective action on the HACCP Cold Storage Log.

Bake

 

 

 

 

The Chef discards casseroles if they are not reheated to 165° within 2 hours. Chef notates corrective actions and informs G.M. who investigates the reason for the defect. If equipment is malfunctioning, the unit is taken out of service and repaired. Chef ensures that corrective actions are recorded on the HACCP Cooking Log.

Cooling

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

If casserole (s) do not reach 70° within two hours, re-heat on time back to 165° and cool again. If casserole (s) are between 140° and 70° for more than 2 hours, Chef discards product. If casseroles do not reach 41° within four hours, reheat to 165° and cool again. If cooling standards are not met on second cool down, discard product. If deviations occur, Chef determines if it is the result of equipment failure or incorrect procedures. Chef notifies the G.M. if out of temperature products are discarded. Corrective actions taken are recorded on the HACCP Time/Temperature Log.

Store

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

If ambient air temperature rises above 45 degrees for more than 4 hours discard casseroles. If ambient temperature rises between 41° and 45° for less than 4 hours, move casseroles into a colder unit or place on ice. Check casserole temperature, if below 45° but greater than 41° re-heat to 165° rapidly and serve. Head Cook notifies the G.M. if temperature above 41° is detected on two or more consecutive temperature readings in one day and corrective actions taken are recorded on the HACCP Cold Storage Log.

Reheat

If casseroles do not reach 165° within two hours, discard. Chef determines why time and temperature requirements were not met and records corrective actions on the HACCP Time/Temperature Log

Hold casserole hot

If casserole temperature falls below 140° for less than 2 hours, re-heat to 165 within 2 hours and hold at 41. If casseroles are less than 140° Head Cook notifies Chef and a determination is made for the cause. If temperature of casserole falls below 140° for more than 2 hours the Head Cook discards casseroles and notifies Chef. The Head Cook records all corrective actions on the HACCP Time/Temperature Log.

 

 

EXAMPLE 10: VERIFICATION SYSTEM:

Who: The Third Party Audit Firm performs a biannual verification audit. The G.M. verifies that all records are accurate and complete, and:

o That the Food Flow Diagrams for each process are in the file for each menu item covered by the plan.

o That the Ingredients for each menu item covered by the plan are in the file.

o That the Recipes are in the file for each menu item.

o That the following HACCP Monitoring Records are kept on file for 30 days: HACCP Cooking Log; HACCP Time/Temperature Log; HACCP Cold Storage Log.

o That all Corrective Actions are recorded on the monitoring record.

o That all Monitoring Records are complete and that signatures, and dates appear on every record and that Deviations or Critical Defects have been recorded.

o That all Thermometer and Timer Calibration records are kept in the HACCP Monitoring Records file

o That the Verification Audit Form is properly filed at the end of the audit and is complete with signature and date

o That the Biannual Verification Audit Form is on file

o That all Training Records are complete for each employee

o That no changes have occurred in Recipes or that a new Food Flow Diagram and Hazard Analysis was performed for each new recipe

o That Critical Limit Standards meet the Food Code

Who: Public Health Department. Conducts HACCP based inspections.

How: Spot checks. The G.M. or designee spot checks temperatures at:

o Cooking

o Cooling

o Reheating

o Hot holding

o Cold storage

When: The G.M. conducts a verification audit every three months. The Audit Firm conducts audits biannually. The Public Health Department inspects a minimum of once annually.

When: An outbreak occurs.

When: New scientific information or regulatory information (changes in Food Code) affecting the hazard analysis, critical control point, or critical limits becomes available.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXAMPLE 11: Set up the Record Keeping System

Who: The G.M. has access to all records at all times; all supervisors have access to monitoring records at all times; all Health Dept. Personnel have access to records at all times. Other persons may have access at discretion of G.M. or designee.

What: The G.M. creates records and files for the following HACCP system components:

o Food Flow Diagrams

o Ingredients for each menu item covered by the plan.

o Standard Recipes

o HACCP Monitoring Records: HACCP Cooking Log; HACCP Time/Temperature Log; HACCP Cold Storage Log.

o Corrective Action Plans.

o Thermometer and Timer Calibration records

o Verification Audit Form

o Audit Firm Biannual Verification Audit Form

o G.M. Quarterly Verification Form

o Public Health HACCP Based Inspections

o Training Records for each employee

o Hazard Analysis for each recipe

o Critical Limit Standards

How long: Monitoring Records and Thermometer Calibration Records are kept 30 days. Verification Audits are kept for 2 years. All other components are kept perpetually.

Where: The HACCP plan and all records constituting the HACCP system are kept in the G.M.’s office in the HACCP File Cabinet.

EXAMPLE 12: SUMMARY TABLE FOR SALMON BROCCOLI CASSEROLE

 

CCP

HAZARD

CRITICAL LIMIT

MONITOR

CORRECTIVE ACTION

RECORD KEEPING

VERIFICATION

COMBINE

 

 

 

 

 

Toxins from rice and cream sauce

 

 

 

 

Stored at 41° ; Cooled from 140° -70° in two hours and from 70° to 41° in four more hours

 

 

Chef reviews cooling and storage logs. Record and take temperatures before combining cream sauce and rice. Record on HACCP T/T Log. Sign and date log.

Discard if products are over 41° . Notify G.M.

Record corrective action on HACCP T/T Log.

Place HACCP T/T Log in the HACCP Monitoring Records file.

G.M audits records quarterly, spot checks cooling procedures and thermometer calibration. Third parties audit bi- annually. H.D. audits yearly

Bake

 

 

 

 

Survival of bacteria, virus and parasites from preceding steps

 

 

Cook to 165° within 2 hours. Set calibrated timer for 2 hours. Set thermostat on 350° .

 

Chef checks with calibrated thermocouple every half hour. Records readings on HACCP Cooking Log.

Chef discards casseroles if they do not reach 165° in two hours. Chef records corrections on the HACCP Cooking Log

Place HACCP Cooking Log in the HACCP Monitoring Records file

G.M audits records quarterly, spot checks cooking procedures and thermometer calibration

Third parties audit bi- annually. H.D. audits yearly

Cooling

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Growth vegetative bacteria, germination of spores and toxin production.

Reach 70° in 2 hours and 41° in four more hours. Use 60/40 -ice bath with salt. 3 pans max to a tub.

Head cook checks re-heating every half hour with thermocouple and records items on HACCP T/T Log.

Head Cook reheats casseroles to 165° and cools again if casseroles do not meet cooling criteria. If cooling fails again, discard products. Note corrective actions on HACCP T/T Log.

Head Cook places HACCP T/T Log in HACCP Monitoring Records file

G.M audits records quarterly, spot checks cooling procedures and thermometer calibration

Third parties audit bi- annually. H.D. audits yearly

Store

Growth of vegetative cells, germination of spores, toxin production

Maintain at 41° or less. Use within 7 days. Date mark.

Head Cook checks temperatures every 4 hours and records on HACCP Cold Storage Log

Move to colder box and place on ice or reheat to 165 and serve. Record corrective actions on HACCP Cold Storage Log.

Head Cook places HACCP Cold Storage Log in HACCP Monitoring Records file

G.M audits records quarterly, spot checks storage procedures and thermometer calibration

Third parties audit bi- annually. H.D. audits yearly

Reheat

Survival of bacteria from previous steps

Re-heat to 165° within 2 hours. Use timer.

Chef checks with thermocouple every half hour. Records readings on HACCP Cooking Temp Log.

Chef discards casseroles if they do not reach 165° in two hours. Chef records corrections on the HACCP Cooking Log

Chef places HACCP Cooking Log in HACCP Monitoring Records file

G.M audits records quarterly, spot checks re-heating procedures and thermometer calibration

Third party and HD above

Hold hot

Growth of vegetative cells, toxin production

Maintain 140° or above. Set up steam tab

Head Cook monitors temps every hour with thermocouple. Records temperature on HACCP T/T Log.

Reheat if below 140° less than 2 hrs or discard if greater than 2 hrs. Record corrective actions on HACCP T/T Log

Head Cook places HACCP T/T Log in HACCP Monitoring Records file

G.M audits records quarterly, spot checks hot holding procedures and thermometer calibration

Third party and HD above

 

APPENDIX F PART II: Self-Tests

Self-Test 1. Lesson II: Understanding Foodborne Illness

1. The source of the greatest number of foodborne illness outbreaks is:

a. Chemical contamination

b. Biological contamination

c. Personal contamination

d. Physical contamination

2. Foods that are classified as "Potentially Hazardous" are more dangerous because:

a. They support rapid bacterial growth

b. They are more likely to be contaminated than other foods

c. They come from simple plants

d. They come from diseased animals

3. The agents of foodborne infection include:

a. Bacteria, but not virus or parasites

b. Virus, but not bacteria or parasites

c. Parasites only

d. Bacteria, virus and parasites

4. To control infections it is most important to:

a. Keep the facility clean at all times

b. Check all deliveries for vermin

c. Cook foods derived from animals thoroughly

d. Wash chicken and other meats before cooking

5. A toxin is:

a. A poisonous chemical compound

b. A type of spore

c. A type of bacteria

d. A simple plant

6. Toxins in food can best be controlled by:

a. Controlling the growth of bacteria in potentially hazardous foods

b. Preventing ill workers from handling foods

c. Wearing gloves

d. Cooking all raw animal derived foods thoroughly

7. A bacteria which causes an intoxication is:

a. Salmonella

b. Clostridium botulinum

c. Shigella

d. Hepatitis A

8. A parasite which can be transmitted through food is:

a. Hepatitis A

b. Clostridium perfringens

c. Staphylococcus aureus

d. Trichinella spiralis

9. Which statement below is correct?

a. A traditional sanitation program cannot prevent foodborne illness

b. A traditional sanitation program is mainly used for non-potentially hazardous foods

c. A traditional sanitation program can be effective, but not as effective as HACCP for preventing foodborne illness

d. A traditional sanitation program is replacing HACCP in many jurisdictions

10. The leading cause of food illness outbreaks reported is:

a. Animals in restaurants

b. Soiled bathrooms

c. Improperly cooled foods

d. The presence of garbage and food wastes in kitchens

Self Test 2: Lesson III: The Seven HACCP Principles

1. HACCP Principle 1 is known as:

a. Hazard identification

b. Hazard prevention

c. Hazard assessment

d. Hazard analysis

 

2. HACCP principle 2 is known as:

a. Establish corrective action

b. Establish critical limits

c. Establish critical control monitoring

d. Identify critical control points

3. The HACCP principle where standards are developed is known as

a. Establish a monitoring system

b. Identify critical control points

c. Take corrective action

d. Establish critical limits

4. The HACCP principle that requires managers to lead and control the HACCP system is:

a. Verification

b. Monitoring

c. Critical limits

d. Record keeping

 

 

5. Procedures to follow when a deviation occurs are known as:

a. Monitoring

b. Verification

c. Corrective actions

d. Critical control point

Self-Test 3. Lesson IV: Identify Hazards and Determine Critical Control Points

1. When conducting a hazard analysis it is critical to:

a. Conduct a thorough hazard analysis before identifying critical control points

b. Move quickly from the hazard analysis stage to identifying critical control points

c. Take as many food samples as possible to a microbiological laboratory for analyses

d. Prepare an in-depth report for the Department of Public Health outlining your potential hazards

2. A risk can be thought of as:

a. An indication that the food production system must be changed

b. An estimate of the probability of a hazard

c. The same thing as a hazard

d. Something to be avoided at all costs

3. Of the items below, one factor not associated with the risk of foodborne illness is:

a. Culinary knowledge of staff

b. Neighborhood where facility is located

c. The types of foods on the menu

d. Age of customers

4. Concerning the use of the Food Flow Diagram

a. It is important to recognize the steps that actually occur during production

b. Food Flow Diagrams are best prepared by public health officials

c. Food Flow Diagrams are unnecessary and lead to errors in HACCP

d. The Flow of Food is obvious and requires no investigation

5. Concerning hazard assessment:

a. It is the same as hazard analysis

b. All hazards are placed in the same category

c. It is the part of hazard analysis that determines production steps where contamination, growth or survival may occur

d. Survival of bacteria is never a hazard to consider

6. Preventive measures are developed to:

a. Ensure that the facility is kept clean and in good repair

b. Destroy bacteria that cause intoxication

c. Destroy virus, bacteria and parasites

d. Keep bacteria from growing, contamination from occurring, and to destroy harmful microorganisms

 

7. Foodborne illness must be prevented at:

a. Critical limits

b. Critical control points

c. Hazardous points

d. Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures

8. Critical control points can be defined as:

a. A point where a hazard can be controlled

b. Steps in a process where hazards may occur

c. A point where hazards can be reduced to safe levels, prevented, or eliminated

d. Hazardous points which require Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures

9. A point cannot be a critical control point if:

a. Any hazard can survive to another step

b. It diminishes food quality

c. More than one hazard requires control at that point

d. A step further in production will reduce the hazard in question to a safe level, prevent it or eliminate it

10. Basic sanitation measures such as personal hygiene and surface sanitizing are usually controlled by:

a. Regulatory inspections

b. HACCP

c. Critical control points

d. Sanitary Standard Operating Procedures

 

Self- Test 4: Lesson V. Establish Critical Limits; Monitoring; Establish Corrective Actions

1. Critical limit standards can come from all sources below except:

a. Customer surveys

b. Regulatory agencies

c. Research

d. The Food Code

2. The purpose of monitoring includes all of the below except:

a. To track compliance at CCP

b. To identify problem workers

c. To provide a written record

d. To identify hazards so that corrections can be made

3. The types of monitoring measurements include all except:

a. Time and temperature

b. Visual attributes of foods

c. Smell

d. Cost

 

 

4. Those assigned the task of monitoring should be

a. Young and energetic

b. College graduates

c. Unbiased and qualified

d. Trained in the culinary arts

5. Time temperature integrators (TTI) are useful for

a. Detecting vermin infestations

b. Identifying foods that have been temperature abused

c. Keeping food cold on salad bars

d. Keeping food hot in chaffing dishes

6. Monitoring intervals should be:

a. As long as possible to save on labor costs

b. Dependent upon the cost of the food

c. Frequent enough to allow for flexibility in dealing with deviations

d. Calculated using cost control formulae

7. Monitoring equipment includes all below except:

a. Thermometers

b. Timers

c. Clocks

d. Flashlights

8. Concerning corrective actions, which is correct:

a. Corrective actions are not necessary in HACCP

b. Corrective actions taken mean the HACCP plan is ineffective

c. Corrective actions are necessary to HACCP

d. Corrective actions should never be documented

9. A purpose of a corrective action is:

a. To correct violations before the health inspector makes a visit

b. To identify employees with bad habits

c. To correct the cause of a deviation

d. For disciplinary purposes

10. Concerning records of corrective actions taken:

a. They help to validate that the HACCP plan is effective at preventing hazards

b. They should not be kept because of legal liability

c. They should not be shown to the Public Health Department

d. They should only be shown to defense attorneys

 

 

 

 

 

 

Self -Test 5: Lesson VI. Verification and Record Keeping

1. Verification of HACCP programs should be done by:

a. Health Departments

b. Owners

c. Managers

d. All of the above

2. Of the following, which is not a verification procedure:

a. Retraining employees

b. Review the HACCP plan

c. Spot check CCP

d. Establish schedules

3. Concerning record keeping systems

a. They must be as complex as possible

b. They must be computerized

c. They should not include Food Flow Diagrams

d. They should be as simple as possible

4. The types of records and the amount of time to keep them:

a. Are specified by state and federal laws

b. Should be determined by the HACCP team

c. Is not important to HACCP

d. Should be determined by the heath inspector

5. The amount of records to keep can be minimized by:

a. Using the same forms over and over again

b. Using existing in-house cost control or inventory forms

c. Deleting critical control points

d. Printing as small as possible

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX F PART II b: Answers to Self-Tests

 Self-Test 1. Lesson II: Understanding Foodborne Illness

1. b. 2. a. 3. d. 4. c. 5. a. 6. a. 7. b. 8. d. 9. c. 10.c.

Self Test 2: Lesson III: The Seven HACCP Principles

1. d. 2. d. 3. d. 4. a. 5. c.

Self-Test 3. Lesson IV: Identify Hazards and Determine Critical Control Points

1. a. 2. b. 3. b. 4. a. 5. c. 6. d. 7. b. 8. c. 9. d. 10.d.

Self- Test 4: Lesson V. Establish Critical Limits; Monitoring; Establish Corrective Actions

1. a. 2. b. 3. c. 4. c. 5. b. 6. c. 7. d. 8. c. 9. c. 10. a.

Self -Test 5: Lesson VI. Verification and Record Keeping

1. e. 2. a. 3. d. 4. b. 5. b

 

Appendix F Part III To be used with "HACCP Systems for Food Service Operations" Tape 2. Preparing a HACCP Plan for Fried Chicken Breast-

EXERCISE 1. Determine the Potentially Hazardous Ingredients

 

Menu item: Fried Chicken Breast

Ingredients:

Chicken

Flour

Salt

Pepper

Oil

Egg wash

Preparation:

1. Mix flour, salt and pepper

2. Mix eggs with milk. Blend well

3. Dip chicken in egg wash, then in flour

4. Deep fat fry 375° 4 minutes

5. Remove, place on wire rack in sheet pan

6. Bake in 375° oven for 20 minutes until done

7. Remove and chill

8. Reheat to serve

 

Potentially hazardous foods:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXERCISE 2: Create a Food Flow Diagram for Fried Chicken Breast

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXERCISE 3: Identification of hazards of contamination, growth or survival at process steps for Fried Chicken Breast

 

Process step

Potential Hazard

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXERCISE 4: Establish preventive measures for Fried Chicken Breast.

 

Process Step

Preventive measure

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Process Step

Preventive measures

EXERCISE 4 CONT.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXERCISE 5: Identify critical control point(s) for Fried Chicken Breast

 

 

Process Step

Critical Control Point

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXERCISE 6: Establish Critical Limit for Fried Chicken Breast

 

Critical Control Point

Critical limit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXERCISE 7: Establish Monitoring Procedures for Fried Chicken Breast

 

Critical Control Point

Monitoring activity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXERCISE 8: Establish Corrective Action Procedures for Fried Chicken Breast

CRITICAL CONTROL POINT

CORRECTIVE ACTIONS

 

 

EXERCISE 9: Establish a Verification Procedure for Fried Chicken Breast by asking the questions

 

Who performs verification audits?

 

 

 

 

What is verified during audits?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How is verification accomplished?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

When is verification performed?

 

 

EXERCISE 10: Establish a record keeping system for Fried Chicken Breast by asking the following questions:

 

Who establishes the record keeping system?

 

 

 

 

What records make up the system?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How long are various records kept?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Where are the records housed?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXERCISE 11: PREPARE A HACCP SUMMARY TABLE FRIED CHICKEN BREAST

 

CCP

HAZARD

Critical Limit

Monitoring

Corrective action

Verification

Record keeping

 

Appendix G: Establishment Specific Menu Item HACCP Plan Exercise

A. Introduction:

The City of Philadelphia requires that each manager complete 7.5 hours of instruction. Completion of the Establishment Specific Menu Item HACCP Plan Exercise is required for re-certification. This study guide, the two-part video series "HACCP Systems for Food Service Operations", the Salmon Broccoli Casserole Examples in Appendix F Part I, the Fried Chicken Breast Exercise in Appendix F Part III and self-tests have prepared you to create your own HACCP system.

B. Method:

The menu item you choose should be of moderate complexity, contain at least one potentially hazardous ingredient, and have at least two process steps where hazards must be controlled by time or temperature standards (critical control points). For a list of typical critical control points, and the methods to identify them, refer back to Lesson IV.

Once you have selected your menu item, you must perform all the steps just as you did for Fried Chicken Breast and as shown in the Examples 1 through 12 in Appendix F Part 1- Salmon Broccoli Casserole. After you have developed your food flows and have identified the potential hazards as either due to contamination, growth or survival at pasteurization, you can identify your preventive measures. From there follow your CCP’s, critical limit standards, monitoring procedures, corrective actions, record keeping system description and verification procedures. The final exhibit tying it all together is the HACCP Summary Sheet.

The most important thing to remember is that after you develop your HACCP system you will need to spend some time in the kitchen and track your food item through all steps of production. The Food Handling Evaluation Record Log in Appendix H (Exhibit H 2) must be filled out for the menu item you select. This must be submitted with your exercise. Be sure to develop your Food Flow Diagram with the steps that actually occur. Stay focused on the potentially hazardous ingredients when looking at food flows.

C. Exhibits

Exhibits G-1 through G-11 correspond to EXAMPLES 1-12 in Appendix F Part 1-Salmon Broccoli Casserole and the Fried Chicken Breast Exercise. These blank tables and forms provide templates to use in building your HACCP system. The exhibits were packed separately so you can do them and send them in easily. They are included with the original materials you received. Make several copies of this part and do the first few tries in pencil.

D. Completion of Exercise

Upon completion, send in your Establishment Specific Menu Item HACCP Plan Exercise (Exhibits G-1 through G-11) and your Food Handling Evaluation Record Log (EXHIBIT H-2) to Modern Food Safety Solutions. The address can be found in Appendix C. If your exercises are successful, you will receive a certificate, and your name will be kept on file as proof of re-certification. If your exercise is found to be unsuccessful you will be notified of the next available class, where further assistance is available.

Name of establishment: _____________________________________

Your name: (Print)__________________________________________

Address line 1______________________________________________

Address line 2______________________________________________

City ______________________ State_____________ Zip code_______

Phone___________________

STAPLE ALL EXHIBITS TO THIS PAGE

 

Exhibit G-1

Determine the Potentially Hazardous Ingredients

 

Menu item: ____________________________________________

Ingredient

 

 

 

 

Pre-preparation (if any)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preparation: ( list steps)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Potentially hazardous foods:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exhibit G-2

Your name: ___________________________________

 

 

Create a Food Flow Diagram for ___________________________ (food item)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exhibit G-3

Your Name :______________________________ Food Item ____________________________________

 

Identification of hazards of contamination, growth or survival at process steps

Process step

Potential Hazard

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exhibit G-4

Your Name: ______________________________ Food Item ________________________________

Establish preventive measures.

 

Process Step

Preventive measure

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

G-4 Cont.

Your Name____________________________ Food Item ______________________________________

 

Establish preventive measures cont.

Process Step

Preventive measures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exhibit G-5

Your Name: ____________________________________ Food Item ______________________________

Identify critical control point

 

Process Step

Critical Control Point

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exhibit G-6

Your Name_________________________ Food Item __________________________________________

Establish Critical Limit

 

 

Critical Control Point

Critical limit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exhibit G-7

Your Name_________________________________ Food Item __________________________________

Establish Monitoring Procedures

 

Critical Control Point

Monitoring activity

 

Exhibit G-8

Your name: ________________________________ Food Item __________________________________

Establish corrective actions

CRITICAL CONTROL POINT

CORRECTIVE ACTIONS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exhibit G-9

Your name: _______________________________ Food Item_____________________________

Establish a Verification Procedure by asking the questions

Who performs verification audits?

 

 

 

 

What is verified during audits?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How is verification accomplished?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

When is verification performed?

 

 

Exhibit G-10

Your Name : ___________________________________ Food Item ______________________________

 

 

Establish a record keeping system by asking the questions:

Who establishes the record keeping system?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What records make up the system?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How long are various records kept?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Where are the records housed?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CCP

HAZARD

CRITICAL LIMIT

MONITOR

CORRECTIVE ACTION

RECORD KEEPING

VERIFICATION

EXHIBIT G-11

 

Name ____________________________________________ Food Item _______________________________________

APPENDIX H Food Handling Evaluation Record Log:

A. Introduction:

Food temperature and related time problems often result in bacteria being able to survive and grow in foods. This basic fact makes controlling food temperatures and time two of the most important aspects of preventing foodborne illness outbreaks.

When a facility has a time/temperature-monitoring program for it’s most hazardous menu items, based on a HACCP system, that facility is well on it’s way to producing safe foods.

The City of Philadelphia Department of Public Health has a new requirement for monitoring temperatures. Because inspectors may only be able to make a visit or two a year, the responsibility for preparing food safety is logically in the hands of the facility.

A good method of controlling the dangers of food hazards is to track temperatures, and the length of time it takes for a potentially hazardous food to go through all phases of its production. Any time there is a change in temperature, for example going from the frozen state to a thawed state, there is the potential the food will reach the temperature danger zone between 41° and 140° . Time spent in the danger zone, especially time spent between 70° and 140° , is a very hazardous feature of food handling. By recording both time and temperature, and by knowing temperature and time standards, it is relatively simple to detect problems and take immediate action.

B. Food Handling Evaluation Record Log (Exhibit H-1)

As you can see by this example (Exhibit H1), it is not unusual for foods to go through a number of changes in temperature, as a matter of fact, in this example the ground beef used as the main ingredient in CHILI CON CARNI went through 15 temperature changes over the course of about 4 days! Also, note that at no time during production, did the beef or chili remain at temperatures above 41° or below 140° for more than four hours, except during the two part cooling procedure. Controlling time and temperature is key to food safety.

Thorough cooking is another important food safety measure. The high heat of cooking will destroy many types of bacteria, parasites and virus (but not spores or toxins) therefore, cooking temperatures and reheating temperatures must be adequate. By knowing the cooking standards in the Food Code and by applying them to a hazardous product, you will be taking another important step to ensuring food safety.

This exercise will also pinpoint better ways of doing things and define where your system might need improvement.

1. Getting started:

Now that you understand the concept, there are a few things that you will need to complete the log. A blank Food Handling Evaluation Record Log is found in Exhibit H-2. THIS EXHIBIT MUST BE TURNED IN WITH YOUR EXHIBITS FROM APPENDIX G.

Temperature Monitoring Essentials:

o Calibrated thermometer (Bimetallic, thermocouple, or thermister) No glass or mercury filled thermometers, please!

o A supply of Food Handling Evaluation Record Logs

o Pencils

o A timer or clock (wrist watches are not to be worn during food production)

2. Picking a food product to track:

Use the same food product that you developed the HACCP plan for in Appendix G.

Foods that have been incriminated in outbreaks include:

o Ground beef

o Pork

o Poultry

o Eggs

o Seafood

By choosing a menu item that contains one of the above as an ingredient, or as the meal item itself makes the most sense. Also try to pick foods that have a complex series of preparation steps, including cooking and cooling.

But don’t forget that items such as potato salad, ham, other luncheon meats, cream filled desserts, cooked beans and rice also have a history of causing outbreaks. These foods also make good candidates, as do many sandwiches, soups, gravies and sauces.

3. How to track foods

Receiving:

Temperature

The process actually starts when you receive the potentially hazardous food item; it may be either in a raw or prepared form. Take the temperature of the food as soon as you take possession of the item and record it.

Time

Ideally, foods should be put away immediately, but that may not happen. Record as accurately as possible the amount of time it takes to place the delivery under temperature control.

 

Hot and Cold Storage (short term):

Temperature:

Since we are speaking of potentially hazardous foods, it is assumed that refrigeration or hot holding will occur next in the sequence of steps. Take the ambient air temperature of the holding unit and record it when foods are placed in the unit (hot or cold). If the food was in the danger zone at receiving also record the temperature at the point it was stored.

Time:

If the food items placed in the storage unit was in the danger zone at receiving, record the amount of time it took to reach safe temperatures after storage (Elapsed Time).

Cold Storage (long term)

Temperature:

The safe cold holding temperature is 41° or less and the recommended temperature for frozen foods is 0° . Record the ambient air temperature in the cooler hourly. This reading will also be applicable to many different foods in storage.

Time:

The length of time spent in refrigeration depends on the storage temperature. At 41° foods can be stored safely for 7 days. At 45° the food must be used in 4 days. Record the elapsed time that the prepared product remains in cold storage

 

 

Thawing:

Temperature:

Thawing should not allow the food to go into the danger zone; thawing is a procedure to be done under controlled conditions of temperature. Record the temperature of the food going into the thawed state; it should be less than 41° in the center. If a microwave is used, begin cooking immediately.

Time:

Record the time it took the food to go from the frozen state to the thawed state.

Preparation:

Temperature:

Foods will quickly reach ambient air temperature during preparation. Extended time near the most hazardous temperatures of 70- 120 should be avoided. It will not be possible in many instances to keep foods out of the danger zone, therefore time is very important as a control. Record the temperature of the food as it is going into production, and again before cooking.

Time:

Record the time it took for the food item to be prepared at room temperature

Cooking:

Temperature:

Foods must reach pasteurization temperature for a sufficient time to reduce harmful microorganisms to safe levels. For example, rare roast beef must be held at a minimum of 130° for 121 minutes to inactivate salmonellae.

Time: Record the amount of time it took for foods to reach the required temperature and the amount of time spent at lethal temperatures.

Cooling:

Temperature:

Since foods spend time in the danger zone, it is very important to know the temperatures at which the foods were held. Record temperatures at the beginning of cooling and at the end of two hours. Record the temperature at the end of four hours.

Time:

It is best to take measurements every hour, but the log does not require hourly notations. At the end of six hours, cooling must be complete. Whatever the rate, record the elapsed time between starting the cooling process and reaching 41° .

 

Reheating:

Temperature:

Foods must be reheated quickly to 165° if they will be held for service. Record the initial temperature and the final reheat temperature

Time:

The elapsed time must not exceed 2 hours. Record the length of time necessary to reach the safe re-heat temperature

 

 

 

 

 

Hot Holding:

Temperature:

Foods held at 140° or higher preclude the growth of bacteria. There is no length of time at which these foods become hazardous at this temperature, although food quality deteriorates rapidly. Take and record temperature at the beginning and end of hot holding, all foods must go into hot holding at 140° or more.

Time:

Record the amount of time foods are held at 140° as in reality foods often fall into the danger zone due to evaporative heat loss at the surface, from thickening of foods, and several other factors related to the use and maintenance of hot holding units

4. Completing the log (Exhibit H-2)

Now that you know how to obtain the temperature and time information to complete the form, all that is necessary is to make some notes if you did anything to correct a problem, or to clarify an entry. The form requires initials of persons doing the monitoring.

The heading of the log requires a name of a specific menu item, and the date the time/temperature monitoring began.

The most important steps in food production to monitor are:

o Cooking

o Cooling

o Reheating

o Hot holding

EXAMPLE OF FOOD HANDLING EVALUATION RECORD LOG (EXHIBIT H 1)

 

 

FOOD HANDLING PROCEDURE

CHILI CON CARNE

CONTROL STANDARD

CCP

CONTROL MEASUREMENT

(BEFORE//AFTER)

ELAPSED

TIME

EMPLOYEE

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

Receiving frozen ground beef

patties

0°

15°

30 min

GD

Truck temperature -05° , product

too long on dock-still solid

Freezer storage

0°

° 15/ 0°

1 hr

GD

Placed at back of freezer

Thawing

41° or less

0° / 39°

48 hrs

GD

Thawed in fridge, lowest shelf-10lbs

Preparation

Less than 4 hrs

39° /56°

45min

RC

Mixed dry mix and spices into thawed beef

Cooking ground beef

155° Final temperature

56° /185° for 15 seconds

1 hr 10 min

RC

Used tilt skillet. Used half of batch for tacos...

Saved the rest for chili

Cooling ground beef

140° to 70°

in 2 hours

185° / 67°

1hr 37 min

GD

Used freeze stick

Cooling ground beef

70° to 41° in 4 hours

67° /37°

2 hr 15 min

GD

Used ice bath, stirring, 2 inches of

beef in 4-inch pan. Salt in ice.

Cold Storage

41° < 7 days

38° /38°

24 hrs

GD

Used next day

Reheating

165° within 2 hrs

38° /202°

35 min

RC

Used steam kettle, mixed other ingredients

in kettle and boiled

Hot Holding

140°

200° /147°

3 hrs 11 min

GD

Used forced-air convection oven.

Cooling Chili

140° to 70° in 2 hrs

140° /47°

2 hrs

GD

Used chill stick

Cooling Chili

70° to 41° in 4 hours

47° /39

35 min

GD

Used ice bath, stirring, 4 inches

in 2 inch pan, salt in ice

Cold holding

41° less than 7 days

39° /39°

12 hrs

GD

Stored in covered lexan after cooling, approx 15 portions

Reheating

165° within 2 hrs

39° /188°

1 minute

RC

Used microwave. Placed on steam table at first seating.

FOOD HANDLING EVALUATION RECORD LOG (EXHIBIT H-2)

Name of establishment: _____________________________________

Your name: (Print)__________________________________________

Address line 1______________________________________________

Address line 2______________________________________________

City ______________________ State____________ Zip code_________ Phone___________________

Date of delivery_______ Food/Menu Item: __________________________

FOOD HANDLING PROCEDURE

CONTROL STANDARD

CCP

CONTROL MEASUREMENT

(BEFORE//AFTER)

ELAPSED

TIME

EMPLOYEE

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

Appendix I: Self-Inspection

A. Introduction

Self-inspection is a process, undertaken by the establishment to identify key sanitation requirements. It commences with a series of observations and tests to determine whether those requirements are being met and concludes with the development of action plans for corrections. This is different from the HACCP process since it is a reactive rather than preventive program.

Many regulatory and sanitation requirements that help to support the HACCP system cannot be directly measured and therefore cannot be controlled by HACCP. This is why you must develop other procedures for environmental health and safety; HACCP alone is not meant to solve all sanitation problems!

The City of Philadelphia is one of the first jurisdictions to require a self- inspection program. The details of this system will be developed in this Appendix.

B. Background

Knowledge of the Food Code is necessary before inspecting a food facility. Another requirement should be manager certification and basic employee training. You will find that without these two basic starting points, you will not be able to identify problems in sanitation or keep them from reoccurring. The Philadelphia Food Code can be obtained from the Philadelphia Department of Public Health at the address found in Appendix C.

An excellent training tool for employees is a GloGerm kit to reinforce hand-washing compliance. This black light kit and dayglow powder can be obtained from the Glo germ company. The address is found in Appendix E. An inexpensive but effective film series geared to employees and known as "Food Safety First" can be obtained from the same company. Many jurisdictions in the US recognize both of these methods as very successful for training employees.

The Philadelphia Department of Public Health Food Establishment Self-Inspection Checklist can be found in Exhibit I-1.

C. Pre inspection requirements

There are certain items that will need to be obtained in order to perform a self-inspection:

Materials needed include:

o Flashlight

o Thermometer

o Test strips for sanitizer

o Heat sensitive strips for checking dish-machine temperatures

o Daily cleaning schedule

o Hand washing signs

 

 

D. Inspection method

Self-Inspections should be done once every three months.

Start outside of building and peruse the premises

o Check if back door has a self -closure and is tight fitting

o Is the dumpster lid closed and tight fitting

o Is there evidence of standing water or mop bucket waste

Check inside building

Receiving and Storage

o Ask receiving personnel about how they spot contaminated foods

o If there is food being delivered, take temperatures and inspect packaging-reject it if there is evidence of contamination

o Is the dry storage area properly lit and are foods rotated using first-in-first-out-methods

o Are chemicals stored properly and labeled

o Are there signs of vermin

o Foods up off floor 6 inches or on movable dollies

o Are floors, walls, ceiling is in good repair and clean

Refrigeration

o Are foods adequately cooled

o Are shelves adequate

o Is the log of temperatures being maintained

o Are cold foods below 45° and frozen foods solid

o Are displayed foods checked hourly

Preparation

o Are all food contact surfaces clean and sanitized

o Are lights shielded in prep areas

o Are there potentially hazardous foods stored at room temperature

o Are chemicals labeled, used properly and stored away from foods

o Are safe thawing practices followed

o Are foods cooked to the proper temperatures and monitored, do employees have and use thermometers

Cleanliness

o Are soap and paper towels at the hand sink

o Is the hand wash reminder up

o Do you see good hygienic practices

o Head covering in place

o No open wounds

o Are employee personal hygiene and hand washing practices monitored

o Are utensils properly sanitized and clean

o Is sanitizer concentration monitored

o Is it at the right strength

o Are toilets clean and properly maintained

o Are the grease hood filters clean and is there proper ventilation of smoke

 

E. Using the Self Inspection Checklist

Find the indicated conditions on the checklist and note both good conditions and those that need improving. If a situation is unsatisfactory and it can be corrected immediately, do it at once, i.e., replacing soap at a hand-washing sink.

If a situation needs improvement, but is not a serious threat to the public, set a goal for correction and develop a plan of action. This should include what needs to be done, who will do it, and when it is to be completed.

Use the comment section to describe simple remedies (provided paper towels to sink)

F. Files

Keep the checklists on file and refer to them to make sure that corrections have been made.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PHILADELPHIA DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEATLH EXHIBIT I- 1

FOOD ESTABLISHMENT SELF INSPECTION CHECKLIST

ESTABLISHMENT NAME__________________________ ADDRESS______________________________

DATE____________CERTIFIED FOODHANDLER________________________CERTIFICATE#_______________

S = SATISFACTORY NI = NEEDS IMPROVEMENT U = UNSATISFACTORY

CONDITIONS NOTED

S

NI

U

COMMENTS

1. Incoming Foods checked: Quality,Satisfactory Temp., Signs of

vermin.

2. Foods properly rotated: "First in first out". Signs of spoilage or

contamination.

3. Temperature controls and logs:

a) Refrigeration checked daily prior to operation and

temperature log maintained.

b) Refrigerated food temperatures adequate – < 45 degrees F

refrigerated; < 0 degrees F frozen.

c) Internal cooking temperature monitored.

d) Displayed foods checked hourly- <45 degrees F or > 140

degrees F.

e) No potentially hazardous foods held at room temperature.

time food is exposed to room temperature during

preparation is limited to prevent warming of the foods.

4. Sources of Food Contamination

a) All chemicals properly stored and labeled.

b) All food and supplies off the floor / Exposed foods in

storage covered.

c) Shields for all lights.

5. Pest Control – No signs of vermin activity

a) Pest control program in place / management knows how all

control measures are used.

b) Doors & windows to exterior in good repair and tight

fitting.

6. Employee Hygiene – Clean clothing/aprons

a) Food handlers – No open cuts, sores, other skin

conditions, or infection.

b) Head coverings used.

7. Handwashing – Soap & single service towels at sink.

a) Employee handwashing monitored.

b) Sink available. Fixtures clean & in good repair.

c) Handwashing reminder sign posted.

8. Utensil cleaning. Glasses, flatware, utensils clean

a) Cleaning equipment properly set up & used.

b) Sanitizer concentration monitored.

9. Equipment – Clean & in good repair

a) Daily cleaning schedule posted and in use.

10. Toilet rooms clean, in good condition & properly supplied.

11. Floors, walls, ceilings clean & in good repair.

12. Mechanical ventilation clean & filters in place. Date of last

system cleaning posted.

13. Outer premises clean, no puddled water, no holes or openings.

14. Interior & Exterior Trash storage – Container clean, covered,

in good repair, areas clean.

Appendix J: ADMINISRATIVE COMPLIANCE

 

City of Philadelphia

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH

___________________________________

 

REGULATIONS GOVERNING FOOD ESTABLISHMENTS

 

Pursuant to Section 6-301 of The Philadelphia Code, the following regulations are promulgated by the Board of Health.

 

19-0 FOOD ESTABLISHMENT PERSONNEL FOOD SAFETY CERTIFICATION

 

19-01 General

19-01.1 After September 1, 1996, no person shall operate a food establishment that handles, prepares

and serves non-prepackaged potentially hazardous food who does not have present

and in its employ at all hours of operation at least one (1) person with a valid Food Establishment Personnel Food Safety Certificate issued by the Department.

19-01.2 When the licensed premise has more than one location in which food preparation activities

occur, then each location shall be staffed by a certified individual.

19-01.3 The certificate(s) shall be conspicuously posted.

19-01.4 Exemptions

This requirement does not apply to:

railroad cars in interstate transit;

portions of food establishments inspected by the United States Department of Agriculture;

bed and breakfast establishments;

temporary food establishments;

establishments that handle only potentially hazardous food which has been commercially prepared and prepackaged and is served in the original packaging, without further handling;

establishments that have applied for and have received exemption due to demonstration that the protection of the public health does not require the presence of a certified food establishment employee.

19-02 Compliance

The food establishment shall immediately notify in writing the Department of non-compliance due to the absence of a required certified individual. The establishment shall state reasons for non-compliance and steps being taken to timely comply. The food establishment shall have three months from the date of non-compliance to take the necessary steps to come into compliance and shall notify the Department of the certified individual(s) employed to obtain compliance.

19-03 Issuance of the Food Establishment Food Safety Certificate

19-03.1 Any person desiring to obtain the Food Establishment Food Safety Personnel Certificate issued

by the Department shall submit the required application form supplied by the Department and established fee.

19-03.2 Approval for issuance of the certificate shall be based upon compliance and submission of appropriate documentation noted below:

Applicant has successfully completed a food safety training program acceptable to the Department and is in compliance with the standards of the approved training program at the time of application;

Applicant has successfully passed a proficiency test offered by or approved by the Department;

Applicant has successfully completed an academic program acceptable to the Department that includes food safety and sanitation training.

19-04 Period of Certification

Certification shall be valid for a period of five years. Re-certification shall require proof of attendance at courses approved by the Department.

19-05 Self Inspection

19-05.1 The certified food establishment responsible individual shall conduct or cause to be conducted a

self-inspection of the food establishment premises at least every three months. The self-inspection shall include examination and evaluation of:

The interior and exterior of the premises, including the condition and state of repair of the physical structure as it relates to sanitary maintenance of the facility and equipment and the prevention and control of insect and rodent entry into the premises;

The manner in which food is handled, stored, processed, manufactured, transported, or served to ensure that is not subject to contamination and that proper temperature controls are maintained.

19-06 Department Notification of a Suspected Foodborne Illness and Other Emergency Occurrences

19-06.1 A suspected or confirmed foodborne illness reported to the food establishment shall be reported immediately to the Department, but shall in no event be more than forty-eight hours.

19-06.2 Samples of food and food products in the establishment related to the reported foodborne illness shall be segregated and properly stored, and may not be removed or discarded without approval of the Department.

19-06.3 The occurrence of a fire, flood, or power outage of two or more hours, or similar event shall be reported to the Department immediately if other responsible establishment management is unavailable.

TITLE 6-HEALTH CODE

Section 6-301 FOOD ESTABLISHMENTS

Responsibilities of Food Establishments. Subject to the exemptions of Section 6-301(9), every food

establishment that sells any non-packaged potentially hazardous food, as defined by the Board, shall:

During hours when food is being prepared, manufactured, cooked, processed, dressed, served or distributed have present and in its employ at least on (1) person with a valid Food Establishment Personnel Food Safety Certificate, issued pursuant to Section 6-301(10).

(.1) The establishment shall post in a conspicuous location the Certificates of al such persons.

no expired or revoked Certificates shall be posted.

(.2) In the event of any period of non-compliance with Section 6-301(8)(a)(i), a food establishment shall not be considered in violation if the establishment immediately notifies the Department, in writing, of the reasons for such non-compliance and the steps being taken to timely comply, and if the Department determines that the establishment is taking all reasonable steps to timely comply.

 

Conduct a minimum of one (1) self-inspection of the food establishment every three (3) months.

(.1) The self-inspection shall be conducted by a person with a valid Food Establishment

Personnel Food Safety Certificate. The self-inspection shall include a thorough and

complete examination and evaluation of:

the physical premises, both interior and exterior;

all food that is processed, manufactured, transported, or served on the premises; and

the manner in which such food is handled and stored.

(.2) The food establishment shall complete a self-inspection form, on a form made available

by or acceptable to the Department, after each self-inspection. Such forms shall be

completed by the person conducting the inspection. Completed self-inspection forms

shall be maintained by the food establishment and be available for review upon request

by the Department for a minimum of one (1) year.

Initiate any improvements found to be needed as a result of any self-inspection. Such improvements shall be made as soon as possible, but in not event later than the next self-inspection. Notwithstanding the foregoing, nothing in Section 6-301 (8) shall relieve any food establishment of its obligation to comply immediately with any other provisions of the Title.

Promptly notify the department of any known or suspected foodborne illness of any employee or customer. Such notification shall be made immediately upon learning of such illness or suspected illness or suspected illness, but in no event more than forty-eight (48) hours after the first knowledge. A single isolated instance of illness which the establishment reasonably believes is not traceable to the establishment need not be reported, but any pattern of multiple illnesses must be reported immediately.

Exemptions. The following establishments shall be exempt from the requirements of Section 6-301(8):

those portions of establishments inspected by the United States Department of Agriculture;

a bed and breakfast homestead or inn, meaning a private residence which contains ten or fewer bedrooms used for providing overnight accommodations to the public and in which breakfast is the only meal served and is included in the charge of the room;

establishments that only serve potentially hazardous food which has been commercially prepared and prepackaged and is served in the original packaging, without further handling;

temporary food operations without permanent location that operate for a period of time not to exceed seven (7) days; and

such other establishments which have applied to the Department for an exemption and have demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Department that the circumstances of that particular food establishment at that time are such that the protection of the public health does not require the presence of a certified food establishment employee. The exemption shall remain valid only as long as the conditions under which the exemption was granted remain unchanged.

Food Establishment Personnel Food Safety Certificate

The Department shall issue a Food Establishment Personnel Food Safety Certificate to any person who:

(.1) Demonstrates knowledge of established and recognized food safety procedures by:

Showing proof of successful completion of a food protection course approved by the Department, or of passing the examination required for completion of such course; or

Possession of a valid certificate of registration from a food protection certification program of the Educational Testing Service for Occupational and Professional Assessments; or

Such other means as determined by the Department to be equivalent to the foregoing, including possession of a valid certificate of completion from a food protection course determined by the Department to be substantially equivalent to the courses approved by the Department.

(.2) Pays a reasonable fee to be established by the Department to defray the costs of

administrating this Certificate program established by Section 6-301(10).

A Food Establishment Personnel Food Safety Certificate shall be valid for such period of time as the Department shall determine, and shall not be transferable.

The Department may revoke a Food Establishment Personnel Food Safety Certification upon a finding that the Certificate holder has not complied with his or her obligations under this Section or applicable regulations. Such revocation, and any appeal therefrom, shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures for license suspension and revocation set forth in this Title.

 

 

EMERGENCY REFERENCE GUIDE

 

 

 

 

In the event of an emergency or disaster at your foodservice establishment, you must contact the Philadelphia Department of Public Health immediately. We will instruct you on the actions to be taken to resolve the situation. The following conditions require notification to the Office of Food Protection (215) 685-7494:

 

 

 

FIRE

 

 

FLOOD

 

 

 

 

 

 

RAW SEWAGE PRESENT

 

 

 

 

 

INADEQUATE WATER SUPPLY

INADEQUATE HOT WATER SUPPLY

 

UNAPPROVED WATER SUPPLY SOURCE

CONTAMINATED WATER SUPPLY

LOSS OF ELECTRICITY OR GAS

UNAPPROVED FOOD HANDLING PROCESS

CONTAMINATION FROM STRUCTURAL DEFECTS

EXTREME VERMIN INFESTATION

GROSS UNSANITARY CONDITIONS

 

PHILADELPHIA DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH